Table 1

Review of literature on prevalence of tobacco consumption in India

ReferenceStudy populationSample sizeYearPrevalence of tobacco consumption (indicators presented in the published study)Comparative estimates for the same comparable sub-sample of population from the current study based on authors’ calculations
NA, not available.
National level studies
National Sample Survey Organization (1998) and author’s calculations52nd round; nationally representative survey of all the states and union territories. The data were elicited using household informants396546 individuals 15 years and above1995–9651.3% men and 10.3% women consumed some form of tobacco; 19.2% current smokers (35.3% men and 2.6% women), 16.4% (24% men and 8.6% women) chew tobacco47% of men and 14% of women consumed some form of tobacco; 16.2% current smokers (29.4% men and 2.3% women) and 20.5% chew tobacco (28.3% men and 18% women)
WHO (1997)1Sample size or methodology not known15 years and above199765% of all men and 33% of all women consumed some form of tobacco; smoking 35% of all men and 3% of female47% of men and 14% of women consumed some form of tobacco; 29.4% of men and 2.3% of women smoked
Local studies
Kutty et al (1990)9Rural population of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala1130 respondents aged 25–64 years1990Overall smoking prevalence 21.9% (15.1–28.7%)18.5% (17.1–20%) in rural Kerala
Venkat Narayan et al (1996)10Population based representative study in Delhi urban sample based on sampling frame of 1981 census population13558 individuals 25–64 years1985–8645% (43.8–46.2%) of men and 7% (6.4–7.6%) of women were smokers32.7% (30%–35.5%) men and 2.3% women (1.8% to 2.9%) in Delhi
Gupta (1996)11Bombay urban sample; cross sectional individual self reports, population based with under-sampling of upper middle and higher economic classes99598 individuals (60% women, 40% men) 35 years and older1992–9457.5% prevalence of tobacco use in women, 69.3% current tobacco use in men. 23.6% of men were smokers18.3% (15.0–22.0%) women and 43.7% (39.5–48.1%) men use tobacco; 21% (18.1–24.1%) men smoked tobacco
Gupta et al (1997)12Census sampling in three villages in Naguar district in Rajasthan1982 men and 1060 women 20 years or olderNA51% of men and 5% of women smoked tobacco50.5% (48.1–53.0%) men and 6.0% (4.6–7.9%) women
Shah and Vaite (2002)13Pavement dwellers in Mumbai, India; accidental sampling400 pavement dwellers (83% male of average age 33 years)200286% reported using tobacco. Raw tobacco used by more than half, 30% smoked bidis, 24% used pan, 20% used gutkha, and 8% smoked cigarettes.No comparable sample can be defined
Shah S and Vaite S (2002)14Street children in Mumbai, India; accidental sampling400 street children,6–19 years old (mean age was 15 years, 98% were male)200246.8% used gutkha, 39.5% smoked bidis, 28% smoked cigarettesNo comparable sample can be defined