Table 1

Media campaign message themes

Message categoryDescription
  • Consequences

    Short termShort term smoking effects, such as loss of breath, yellow teeth, bad breath, or financial consequences
    Long termLong term smoking effects, including disease (emphysema, cancer) and death
    FamilyFamilial consequences of smoking and parent or sibling influence on smoking among youth
    AddictionHighlights the fact that cigarettes are highly addictive, or portrays individuals with a loss of control over their lives
  • Social norms and imagery

    DeglamorisationExplicitly portrays smoking as gross, stupid, crazy, not “cool”, silly looking, or unattractive
    Smoking normsDispels perception among teens that everyone smokes; portrays cigarette smoking as an individual choice
  • Role models

    Smoker as negative role modelFormer and current smokers tell their story of how tobacco caused severe consequences for them
    Celebrity appealsUses famous actors, models, or athletes
  • Industry and product focus

    Tobacco industryDocuments efforts by the industry to deny addictive nature of product, lie, and target teens via advertising
    Cigarette chemicalsIllustrates that cigarettes contain numerous dangerous chemicals (that is, ammonia)
  • Secondhand smoke

Highlights the dangers of secondhand smoke, including short (bothers others) and long term (disease) impacts
  • Youth access

Shows efforts to reduce the sale of cigarettes to minors or demonstrates the legal risks of selling to minors