Table 5

Daily smoking: odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for pupil and school level variables from multilevel logistic regression (models E–J)

 E F G H I J Constant −3.26 −4.00 −3.03 −4.52 −5.18 −4.32 Sex Boy 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 Girl 1.55 (1.13 to 2.12) 1.58 (1.15 to 2.16) 1.58 (1.15 to 2.16) 1.57 (1.08 to 2.26) 1.59 (1.10 to 2.30) 1.57 (1.09 to 2.28) Mother smokes? No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 Yes 2.51 (1.83 to 3.45) 2.48 (1.81 to 3.40) 2.50 (1.82 to 3.43) 1.65 (1.13 to 2.40) 1.62 (1.11 to 2.37) 1.61 (1.10 to 2.36) N/A 1.04 (0.97 to 1.12) 1.04 (0.97 to 1.12) 1.05 (0.97 to 1.13) 1.01 (0.93 to 1.09) 1.00 (0.92 to 1.09) 1.01 (0.93 to 1.10) Parents expect too much at school? No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 Yes 2.17 (1.60 to 2.94) 2.17 (1.60 to 2.95) 2.16 (1.59 to 2.94) 1.84 (1.28 to 2.63) 1.84 (1.28 to 2.64) 1.84 (1.28 to 2.64) Alienation score (OR per unit increase) 1.85 (1.59 to 2.15) 1.82 (1.56 to 2.11) 1.86 (1.60 to 2.17) 1.43 (1.20 to 1.71) 1.42 (1.19 to 1.69) 1.46 (1.22 to 1.74) Best friend smokes? No 1.00 1.00 1.00 Yes, sometimes 2.37 (1.17 to 4.78) 2.41 (1.20 to 4.85) 2.41 (1.19 to 4.85) Yes, daily 30.0 (18.2 to 49.2) 29.3 (17.9 to 47.8) 29.8 (18.1 to 48.9) Policy Strong 1.00 1.00 Average 2.19 (1.11 to 4.35) 2.04 (1.04 to 4.00) Weak 3.52 (1.55 to 7.97) 2.77 (1.25 to 6.12) Pupil enforcement High 1.00 1.00 Low 1.63 (1.08 to 2.45) 1.52 (1.03 to 2.24) School level variance(SE) 0.295 (0.119) 0.202 (0.101) 0.251 (0.111) 0.077 (0.098) 0.036 (0.089) 0.066 (0.096) Wald χ2 (df) 127.9 (5) 9.11 (2) 5.40 (1) 221.7 (2) 6.40 (2) 4.49 (1) p Value for contrasts of terms (added to model): p < 0.0001 (A) p = 0.011 (E) p = 0.020 (E) p < 0.0001 (E) p = 0.041 (H) p = 0.034 (H)