Table 1

Studies using objective measures to assess economic impact of smoke-free policies in the hospitality industry

Control for economic conditionsDo not control for economic conditions
No effect, or positive effectNegative effectNo effect, or positive effectNegative effect
Bold type = peer reviewed.
*Use discrete rather than continuous data before and after the introduction of policies.
†Only weak evidence of connection with the tobacco industry.
Studies funded from sources other than the tobacco industry
Taxable sales receiptsBartosch and Pope (1995)34; Bartosch and Pope (1999)35; Bartosch and Pope (2002)98; Bialous and Glantz (1997)36; *Dresser (1999)40; Glantz and Charlesworth (1999)5; Glantz and Smith (1994)42; Glantz and Smith (1997)44; Glantz (2000)43; Goldstein and Sobel (1998)45; Haylett and Huang (2000)30; Huang et al(1995)46; *Hyland et al(1999)48; Hyland (2002)25; Maroney et al (1994)51; Pacific Analytics (2001)52; Pope and Bartosch (1997)53; Sciacca and Ratliff (1998)54; Styring (2001)29; Taylor Consulting (1993)55; Wakefield et al(2002)56California State Board of Equalization (1998)37; *City of Boulder (1996)38; Fletcher (1998)41
Sales data other*Dresser et al (1999)39
Employment levels*Hild et al 2001113; *Hyland and Cummings (1999)47; *Hyland and Tuk (2001)50; Hyland et al(2000)49; Bourns and Malcomson33
Number of establishments*Hyland and Cummings (1999)47
Bankruptcy dataBourns and Malcomson33
Studies for which funding is unknown
Sales data otherPubco 200227
Studies conducted by organisations or consultants with links to the tobacco industry around the time of the study
Taxable sales receipts*Lilley et al (1996)61 *Masotti et al (1991)18
Studies funded by tobacco companies or industry groups supported by the tobacco industry
Taxable sales receipts*Laventhol et al (1990)58
Sales data otherApplied economics (1996)57
Employment levels*Lilley et al (1999)59; *Lilley et al (1996)60
Number of establishments*Lilley et al 199959