Table 2

 Adjusted odds ratios* (and 95% confidence intervals) for the relationship of smoking status and socioeconomic status (SES) variables with expenditure on selected items

VariablesRestaurantsAlcohol (non-pub)Alcohol (pubs)Gambling
Source: 1998–1999 Household Expenditure Survey, Australia.
*Odds ratios pertain to odds of having spent any money on the particular expenditure item. In the restaurant analysis, in addition to SES variables, number of household members older than 14 is controlled for. In the analyses related to alcohol, pubs/clubs and gambling expenditure, in addition to SES variables, the number of household members older than 17 is controlled for.
†All odds ratios for equivalent income are slightly greater than unity and significant (p<0.05).
Smoking status
    Smoking household0.8 (0.7 to 0.9)2.0 (1.8 to 2.3)1.5 (1.4 to 1.7)1.4 (1.2 to 1.6)
    Non-smoking household1111
Equivalent income†1.0 (1.0 to 1.0)1.0 (1.0 to 1.0)1.0 (1.0 to 1.0)1.0 (1.0 to 1.0)
Education
    No qualification1111
    Diploma1.3 (1.1 to 1.5)1.2 (1.0 to 1.4)1.2 (1.0 to 1.4)1.0 (0.9 to 1.2)
    Degree1.7 (1.4 to 2.0)1.3 (1.1 to 1.6)0.9 (0.8 to 1.1)0.7 (0.6 to 0.8)
    Unknown1.3 (0.9 to 1.8)1.0 (0.8 to 1.4)1.1 (0.8 to 1.5)1.1 (0.8 to 1.5)
Occupation
    Blue collar1111
    White collar1.4 (1.2 to 1.8)1.0 (0.8 to 1.2)1.2 (1.0 to 1.4)1.2 (1.0 to 1.5)
    Professional1.6 (1.4 to 1.9)1.0 (0.9 to 1.2)1.4 (1.2 to 1.6)1.2 (1.0 to 1.4)
    Not applicable0.8 (0.7 to 1.0)0.6 (0.5 to 0.7)0.7 (0.6 to 0.9)1.1 (0.9 to 1.3)
Unemployment
    One or more unemployed1.2 (0.9 to 1.5)1.0 (0.8 to 1.3)1.1 (0.9 to 1.3)1.4 (1.2 to 1.8)
    No-one unemployed1111
Housing tenure
    Renter1111
    Purchaser1.2 (1.0 to 1.4)1.3 (1.1 to 1.5)1.0 (0.9 to 1.2)1.4 (1.2 to 1.6)
    Owner13.3 (1.1 to 1.5)1.3 (1.1 to 1.5)1.0 (0.9 to 1.2)1.7 (1.4 to 2.0)
    Other1.0 (0.7 to 1.5)1.1 (0.7 to 1.5)1.0 (0.7 to 1.6)1.0 (0.6 to 1.5)
Index of relative socioeconomic disadvantage
    First quintile (high disadvantaged)1111
    Second quintile1.1 (0.9 to 1.3)1.1 (0.9 to 1.3)1.2 (1.0 to 1.4)0.8 (0.7 to 1.0)
    Third quintile1.2 (1.0 to 1.5)1.2 (1.0 to 1.5)1.2 (1.0 to 1.5)0.9 (0.8 to 1.1)
    Fourth quintile1.4 (1.1 to 1.6)1.3 (1.1 to 1.6)1.3 (1.1 to 1.6)0.9 (0.7 to 1.1)
    Fifth quintile (low disadvantaged)1.6 (1.3 to 1.9)1.3 (1.1 to 1.6)1.3 (1.1 to 1.6)0.8 (0.6 to 0.9)
    Unknown1.4 (1.1 to 1.8)1.4 (1.1 to 1.8)1.4 (1.1 to 1.8)0.9 (0.7 to 1.2)