Table 1

 Research priorities to build national capacity

• EvidenceEffects of smoking on diseases in less developed countries, e.g. tuberculosisFor less developed countries, tuberculosis and other diseases may be far greater contributors to disease burden than lung cancer, COPD, and coronary heart disease
Economics of tobacco controlNeed to understand macro-economic factors in low, middle, and high income countries especially related to how higher taxes will reduce use among youth and poor
Regulation of tobacco productsResearch to assess consequences of regulation on initiation, cessation, and health effects is needed in order to modify the regulatory process on an ongoing basis
Implementation, enforcement, and evaluation of tobacco control policiesNeed to understand the cultural, social, and political factors that facilitate or inhibit the adoption of tobacco control policies (e.g. smoke-free places, advertising bans, and health warnings) as well as factors that lead to enforcement of existing policies
Development of individual and population focused interventions to promote cessation methods for smokers in less developed countriesResearch on societal barriers to quitting as well as communication methods suitable for different populations. Investigate different policy approaches to encourage cessation
Interventions to prevent smoking initiation by women and protect women and children from exposure to secondhand smokeWomen are a global target of the tobacco industry. Investigate approaches that use family planning, hospital visits, and other venues to reach women and vulnerable populations
Interventions for health care professionalsNeed to encourage cessation among health care professionals as well as improve their knowledge, motivation and skills to promote cessation
• InfrastructureCreating coalitions of tobacco control partnersNeed to establish better linkages among tobacco control groups within countries that include government agencies, research organisations and NGOs so that efforts are more comprehensive and synergistic
Development of tracking and surveillance systemsDevelop cost effect methods to monitor the tobacco epidemic as well as to obtain data to evaluate progress to strengthen tobacco control policies and programmes and assess compliance with FCTC. Surveillance of both tobacco control activities and the tobacco industry activities is needed
Interventions aimed at health care systemResearch on how to incorporate cessation within national health care systems especially at the primary care level
• Networking and leadershipCreation of virtual networksEfficient knowledge transfer through networks such as the Global Tobacco Research Network are cost effective and provide essential tobacco control information to large numbers of researchers and advocates
Training to develop skills in advocacy, research, policy and programme implementation and evaluationEfficient methods to train the next generation of tobacco control experts are needed. These can include training centres and the use of distance education and other web based methods to disseminate information
Preparing new leaders for tobacco controlIdentify knowledge, skills and abilities required to assume leadership roles in tobacco control as well as investigate new methods to provide training and mentorship