Table 1

 Financial ties between Enstrom, Kabat and the tobacco industry

1975First record of Enstrom approaching the tobacco industry for funding. Enstrom asks the Council for Tobacco Research (CTR) to fund a study of cancer among Mormons living in the USA
1978Enstrom submits another request for funding to CTR for a study entitled “Smoking cessation and mortality trends among California physicians”
1979Enstrom publishes a review article that provokes criticism from the tobacco industry
1981Kabat begins collaborations with Ernst Wynder, whose American Health Foundation (AHF) was tobacco industry funded. Tobacco industry support was not acknowledged in subsequent publications
1990The tobacco industry initiates contact with Enstrom to critique research on secondhand tobacco smoke. Enstrom declines to comment
1990Enstrom requests funding from Philip Morris for a study to support his work on lung cancer mortality trends among non-smokers. Enstrom is advised to seek funding from the Center for Indoor Air Research (CIAR)
1991Enstrom submits a pre-proposal to the Council for Tobacco Research (CTR) for a study entitled “Mortality Trends Among Smokers and Nonsmokers Study”
1991–7CTR funds the “Mortality Trends Among Smokers and Nonsmokers Study”
1996Enstrom submits to the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) a reanalysis of an article by Elizabeth Fontham, et al. This reanalysis was financially supported by the tobacco industry.
1997Enstrom submits a proposal entitled “Relationship of low levels of active smoking to mortality” for funding to Philip Morris. The proposal is fundedKabat co-authors a paper with tobacco industry consultants that criticises the evidence linking secondhand smoke with lung cancer
1996Enstrom submits pre-proposals to the tobacco industry’s CIAR to explore the possibility of funding research related to secondhand smoke using the California CPS-I cohort
1997 MayCIAR board of directors is informed that discussions had taken place with Enstrom and Kabat about “the possibility of their collaboration”
1997 NovemberMax Eisenberg, director of CIAR, recommends that Enstrom’s revised proposal, “Proposed research on passive smoking”, be considered under the Directed Studies programme
1997 NovemberThe CIAR board of directors votes to fund Enstrom’s proposal with modifications