Table 2

  Adjusted odds ratios for respiratory symptoms and physician consultations by source of secondhand smoke exposures in males

Prevalence (%)
SHS at homeSHS at workOdds ratio† (95% CI)
No (n = 2559)Yes (n = 1357)p ValueNo (n = 688)Yes (n = 3222)p ValueSHS at homeSHS at work
*p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.
†Odds ratios are adjusted for age, marital status, educational attainment, police rank, type of police duties, exposure to self perceived dusty or polluted environment in previous job, and other SHS exposure. Additional adjustment for amount of smoking and duration of smoking was made in current smokers, and for smoking status in the analysis of current smokers and never-smokers combined.
‡Western physicians and Chinese traditional doctors
§p for interaction for SHS exposure variables and smoking status. A significant p value indicates significant difference in odds ratios between current smokers and never-smokers.
Odds ratios, adjusted for the variables above, except for SHS, for the top 12 items of respiratory symptoms in all current versus all never-smokers ranged from 1.09 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.20) for blocked nose to 2.50 (95% CI 2.25 to 2.78) for morning phlegm. The details are not shown here but are available from the authors. Adjusted odds ratio for the bottom three items were near unity (p>0.05).
Throat problems
    Current smokers37.742.40.00529.341.4<0.0011.14(0.98 to 1.33)1.62***(1.32 to 1.97)
    Never-smokers32.431.60.6220.635.4<0.0010.99(0.82 to 1.18)2.15***(1.77 to 2.61)
    p for interaction§<0.050.115
Cough, morning
    Current smokers26.731.20.00319.230.2<0.0011.15(0.97 to 1.37)1.76***(1.40 to 2.21)
    Never-smokers14.716.50.2010.416.6<0.0011.15(0.92 to 1.45)1.72***(1.33 to 2.21)
    p for interaction0.4900.577
Cough, day or night
    Current smokers24.129.9<0.00116.927.9<0.0011.27**(1.07 to 1.51)1.80***(1.42 to 2.28)
    Never-smokers14.415.90.269.616.2<0.0011.16(0.92 to 1.46)1.81***(1.39 to 2.34)
    p for interaction0.1570.726
Cough, chronic
    Current smokers6.87.80.2053.47.9<0.0011.11(0.83 to 1.48)2.52***(1.54 to 4.13)
    Never-smokers4.04.10.942.04.7<0.0011.03(0.68 to 1.56)2.61**(1.50 to 4.55)
    p for interaction0.5510.978
Phlegm, morning
    Current smokers36.639.90.04929.439.6<0.0011.24**(1.06 to 1.45)1.33**(1.09 to 1.62)
    Never-smokers20.219.70.7312.822.3<0.0011.08(0.88 to 1.34)1.92***(1.52 to 2.42)
    p for interaction0.1590.087
Phlegm, day or night
    Current smokers26.630.60.00919.329.8<0.0011.24*(1.05 to 1.47)1.62***(1.30 to 2.04)
    Never-smokers14.114.20.948.315.8<0.0011.07(0.84 to 1.37)2.03***(1.53 to 2.67)
    p for interaction0.0980.500
Phlegm, chronic
    Current smokers12.212.60.6847.813.4<0.0011.07(0.85 to 1.34)1.67**(1.21 to 2.31)
    Never-smokers5.96.70.423.56.8<0.0011.29(0.91 to 1.82)2.05**(1.35 to 3.11)
    p for interaction0.7270.512
Any cough or phlegm
    Current smokers48.353.8<0.00138.752.7<0.0011.23**(1.05 to 1.43)1.56***(1.30 to 1.89)
    Never-smokers30.130.70.7420.633.0<0.0011.10(0.92 to 1.32)1.87***(1.54 to 2.26)
    p for interaction0.1170.536
Increased cough or phlegm
    Current smokers22.225.00.04814.825.0<0.0011.06(0.88 to 1.27)1.81***(1.41 to 2.32)
    Never-smokers16.018.20.1110.118.1<0.0011.12(0.90 to 1.39)1.88***(1.47 to 2.41)
    p for interaction0.9830.729
Ever wheezing
    Current smokers11.015.0<0.0019.813.00.0221.18(0.94 to 1.47)1.37*(1.01 to 1.87)
    Never-smokers7.811.7<0.0015.59.4<0.0011.41*(1.08 to 1.85)1.76**(1.26 to 2.45)
    p for interaction0.6140.381
Blocked or running nose
    Current smokers34.342.8<0.00131.738.6<0.0011.19*(1.02 to 1.39)1.28*(1.05 to 1.55)
    Never-smokers32.138.1<0.00123.136.1<0.0011.15(0.97 to 1.37)1.85***(1.54 to 2.23)
    p for interaction0.382<0.01
Any symptoms above
    Current smokers69.176.8<0.00160.674.1<0.0011.33**(1.12 to 1.59)1.66***(1.36 to 2.02)
    Never-smokers57.062.20.00742.162.5<0.0011.15(0.96 to 1.37)2.33***(1.97 to 2.75)
    p for interaction0.154<0.05
Physician consultations in past 14 days‡ for respiratory symptoms
    Current smokers17.016.50.70212.117.80.0001.02(0.83 to 1.25)1.48**(1.13 to 1.93)
    Never-smokers19.217.80.3415.620.10.0031.13(0.91 to 1.40)1.30*(1.05 to 1.61)
    p for interaction0.6060.245