Table 2

Representative carcinogen derived biomarker studies of people exposed to SHS

Entry No.Carcinogen and exposure data, if availableBiomarker concentrationsSignificant difference? (SHS exposed v non-exposed)Reference
1-HOP, 1-hydroxypyrene; 8-OHdG, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine; NNAL, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol; NNAL-Gluc, a mixture of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-(O-β-D-glucopyranuronosyl)butane and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl-N-β-D-glucopyranuronosyl)-1-butanolonium inner salt; tt-MA, trans, trans-muconic acid.
1PAH1-HOP00.140 µg/24 h in 19 SHS exposed people (urinary cotinine 12.3 µg/24 h) v 0.171 µg/24 h in 23 non-exposed (urinary cotinine 2.3 µg/24 h)No 40
BaP-Hb adducts0.049 fmol/mg Hb in SHS exposed, 0.083 fmol/mg Hb in non-exposed (same individuals as above)
BaP-albumin adducts0.021 fmol/mg in SHS exposed, 0.019 in non-exposed (same individuals as above)
2PAHBaP, 21.5 ng/m3; phenanthrene, 6.8 ng/m3; pyrene 17.6 ng/m3 in an experimental room with 5 smokers and 5 non-smokersNo effects on urinary hydroxyphenanthrenes (2.0 v 2.2 µg/24 h before and after SHS exposure); no effects on urinary 1-HOP (0.24 µg/24 h before and after SHS exposure); no effects on 32P-postlabelling of DNA adductsNo 41
3PAHNo differences in PAH-albumin levels in umbilical cord blood from women exposed to SHS (n = 49) v non-exposed (n = 54)No 48
4PAHNo effect of SHS on PAH-albumin adduct levels in 73 individuals from Aarhus, DenmarkNo 47
5PAH5 non-smokers exposed to SHS from 100 cigarettes (100–180 µg/m3 nicotine in the room) over an 8 h period. No effect on urinary hydroxyphenanthrenesNo 44
6PAHNo difference in 1-HOP levels in urine of children exposed to SHS (n = 286) or not exposed (n = 126) from their parents’ smokingNo 42
7PAH and 4-amino – biphenylSignificantly higher levels of 4-aminobiphenyl-Hb adducts and PAH-albumin adducts in children whose mothers smoked (n = 23 for 4-aminobiphenyl-Hb, n = 44 for PAH-albumin) compared to unexposed children (n = 10 for 4-aminobiphenyl-Hb, n = 24 for PAH albumin)Yes 46
8NNK75–263 ng/m3 in a 16 m3 roomSignificantly increased levels of NNAL plus NNAL-Gluc in urine of 5 men after exposure to SHSYes 52
9NNKSignificantly increased levels of NNAL-Gluc in hospital workers (n = 9) exposed to SHS compared to controlsYes 54
10NNK2.4–50 ng/m3 in 19 rooms where smoking took placeNNAL+NNAL-Gluc levels correlated with nicotine on personal sampler in SHS exposed subjectsYes 56
11NNKNNAL+NNAL-Gluc levels significantly higher in women (n = 23) who lived with men who smoked compared to women (n = 22) who lived with men who did not smokeYes 55
12NNK34% of 204 children with cotinine >5 ng/ml urine; 52/54 of these samples had detectable NNAL+NNAL-Gluc. Levels of NNAL+NNAL-Gluc significantly higher in SHS exposed than in non-exposed childrenYes 53
134-AminobiphenylHigher 4-aminobiphenyl-Hb adducts (27.8 pg/g Hb) in 9 pregnant women with >2.0 µg/m3 nicotine (personal exposure) than in 0.5–1.9 µg/m3 (n = 20, 20.8 pg/g Hb) than in <0.5 µg/m3 (n = 7, 17.6 pg/g Hb)Yes 57
144-Aminobiphenyl and other aromatic aminesNo relation of aromatic amine-Hb adducts to reported SHS exposure or cotinine/creatinine ratios in 73 pregnant womenNo 51
154-Aminobiphenyl and other aromatic aminesNo increase of aromatic amine-Hb adducts with increased exposure to SHS, confirmed by cotinine, in 224 childrenNo 60
16Benzene (geometric means)16.5 (2.3) µg/m3, personal exposure (non-smokers, no SHS)tt-MA38.9 (2.4) µg/l (n = 42)Yes 65
25.4 (2.9) µg/m3, (non-smokers, SHS)54.7 (2.9) µg/l (n = 27)
17Benzene2–100 µg/m3, personal exposure (n = 69 non-smokers from smoking and non-smoking households)tt-MA not correlated with benzene. Marginal difference in tt-MA, non-smokers from smoking homes compared to non-smoking homesNo 67
18Benzene11.5 µg/m3, personal exposure (non-smokers, non-smoking homes, n = 39)tt-MA92 µg/g creatinineNo 68
13.6 µg/m3, (non-smokers, smoking homes, n = 43)126 µg/g creatinine
19Benzene11.5 µg/m3, personal exposure (children, smoking homes, n = 24)tt-MA130 µg/g creatinineNo 66
19.7 µg/m3, (children, non-smoking homes, n = 15)112 µg/g creatinine
20Benzenett-MA3.84 (1.6) ng/µl in 53 SHS exposed childrenNo 64
4.02 (1.1) ng/µl in 26 non-exposed
3.53 (1.4) ng/µl when urinary cotinine ⩽44 ng/ml (n = 39)Yes
4.32 (1.4) ng/µl when urinary cotinine ⩾44 ng/ml (n = 39)
21Benzene<0.19–22 µg/m3, personal exposure, in 5 females exposed to SHStt-MA34–74 µg excreted on non-exposure daysYes 63
42–95 µg excreted on exposure days
22Ethylene oxideEthylene oxide-Hb adducts not different in 28 subjects exposed to SHS v 74 non-exposedNo 70
23UnknownNo difference in 8-OHdG levels in leucocytes of adults unexposed (n = 36), exposed 1–4 h/day to SHS (n = 35), and exposed >4 h/day (n = 21)No 71
24UnknownNo difference in placental levels of 8-OHdG in 10 non-smokers v 9 non-smokers exposed to SHS, validated by plasma and urine cotinine. No effects of SHS on adducts detected by 32P-postlabellingNo 72
25UnknownSignificantly higher (63%) levels of 8-OHdG in blood DNA of subjects exposed to SHS (n = 38) in the workplace, by plasma cotinine than in unexposed (n = 36)Yes 73
26Unknown5 non-smokers exposed to SHS in an unventilated room, 4091 µg/m3 RSP. Marginal, non-significant increase in urinary thioethers observedNo 41
27UnknownNo difference in urinary thioethers between low SHS (n = 23) and high SHS (n = 23) exposed individuals based on plasma cotinine. No difference in urinary thioethers between low SHS (n = 20) and high SHS (n = 19) exposure in the homeNo 80
28UnknownNo effects of SHS exposure on 32P-postlabelled DNA adducts in monocytes of 5 non-smokers exposed for 8 hNo 77
29UnknownNo effect of SHS exposure on 32P-postlabelled DNA adducts in white blood cells of women (n = 31 exposed, 11 non-exposed)No 76
30 Unknown194 students in Athens and 77 subjects in Halkida; 32P-postlabelled DNA adducts in lymphocytes showed no relation to SHS exposure in entire group but did correlate with SHS exposure measurements in winter in a subgroup living in Halkida campus areaNo/Yes 78
31Unknown +PAHtotal PAH 42.3 ng/m3No significant increase in 32P-postlabelled adducts in sputum or lymphocytes of 15 non-smokers who spent time in smoky pubsNo 79
32UnknownNo effect of SHS exposure on oxidised plasma proteins and decreased levels of nitrated plasma proteinsNo 74