Table 3

Relation of carcinogen derived biomarkers to SHS exposure*

Carcinogen in SHSBiomarkerAssociation with SHS exposureReferences
*Modified from Scherer and Richter.39
PAH1-Hydroxypyrene in urineNone in most studies4043, 4548
Hydroxyphenanthrenes in urine
PAH-albumin adducts
PAH-haemoglobin adducts
NNKNNAL and NNAL-Gluc in urineConsistently increased5256
Aromatic aminesHaemoglobin adductsMixed results46, 51, 5760
Benzenetrans, trans-Muconic acid in urineMixed results6368