Table 4

 Age, alcohol and education adjusted rate ratios (RR) by smoking status and betel quid chewing status

Non-smoking and non-betel quid chewingSmoking only (without betel quid)Both habits (smoking and betel quid chewing)
Cause of deathICD-9No. of deathsRRNo. of deathsRR95% CINo. of deathsRR95% CI
*Malignant neoplasm of lip, oral cavity, and pharynx.
IHD, ischaemic heart disease.
All causes001–9988531.020041.31.2 to 1.417621.51.3 to 1.7
All cancers140–2082011.04861.31.1 to 1.6831.71.3 to 2.2
Oral cancer*140–149101.0352.11.0 to 4.2165.92.6 to 13.5
Cancer of nasopharynx14791.0181.30.6 to to 11.4
Cancer of oesophagus15051.0181.50.6 to 4.353.10.8 to 11.3
Liver cancer155611.01201.10.8 to 1.5281.81.1 to 2.8
Lung cancer162371.01352.01.4 to 3.0202.51.4 to 4.3
Cardiovascular diseases390–4592291.05671.41.2 to 1.6461.10.8 to 1.6
    IHD (⩽64 years)410–414321.0881.40.9 to to 2.4
    Stroke (⩽64 years)430–438641.01711.41.0 to 1.8221.30.8 to 2.2
Liver cirrhosis571281.0761.51.0 to 2.4202.51.3 to 4.6