Table 1

Comparison of measured RSP pollution between smoking and non-smoking flights

Study author, year; number of flights; country; sponsorAverage RSP concentration (μg/m3) smoking sectionsAverage RSP concentration (μg/m3) non-smoking sectionsAverage RSP concentration (μg/m3) non-smoking flightsEstimated % of smoking section RSP pollution from SHSComment
†Calculated from data; ‡level of detection  =  10 μg/m3.
All means are arithmetic with standard deviation, unless identified as geometric means as reported.
NGO, non-governmental organisation.
Malmfors et al (1989)31; n = 48; Sweden; tobacco industry235† (SD 123)†110† (SD 70)†Not performed1988 tobacco industry funded study on 48 SAS DC-9 and MD-80 flights; weighted average flight time of 1.8 hours
Nagda et al (1989)3; n = 92; USA; government177 (SD 104)25 (SD 23)10.6 (SD 5.7)94%1989 US Department of Transportation study on 92 random smoking (n = 69; 61 domestic and 8 international) and non-smoking flights (n = 23); optical RSP values, table 4–16
Drake et al (1990)51; n = 4, Japan: tobacco industry46 (SD 54)17 (SD 17)Not performed1987 Philip Morris study on four B-747 international JAL smoking flights measured RSP in all classes and zones. Based on an analysis of data presented, with an average of 20.4 cigarettes/hour. Data as reported were lower: 38 μg/m3 (SD NR) and 14 μg/m3 (SD NR) respectively
Eatough et al (1992)32; n = 4; unknown; tobacco industry155† (SD 61)†68† (SD 57)†Not performedTobacco industry funded controlled experiment on four 5 hour DC-10 smoking flights (airline not reported) at an air exchange rate of 30/h with zero recirculation of air
CSSI (1999), Pierce et al (1999)18; n = 8; USA; NGONot performed<10‡1998 ASHRAE study on 8 US non-smoking B777-200 flights seating 305 to 320, 4 domestic and 4 international
Waters et al (2002)23; n = 6; US; governmentNot given20–153 (range)Not givenNIOSH study on 36 US domestic and international flights. Gate-to-gate times varied from 42–863 mins, and passenger occupancy in coach from 34% to 100% of capacity
Lindgren et al (2002)25; n = 26; Sweden; airline49 (peak 253)3 (SD NR)94%SAS funded study of aft galley area on 26 intercontinental flights of a B767-300. Number of smokers <20 to >30 on 19 smoking flights; number of passengers 122–190 on 7 non-smoking flights
Lindgren et al (2000)24; n = 6; Sweden; airline67 (SD 61)4 (SD 1)94%SAS funded study measured RSP on 6 B-767-300 intercontinental flights during 9 smoking and 8 non-smoking flight segments
Lee et al (2000)15; n = 16; Hong Kong; airline138 (range 0–3000)8 (range 0–300)94%Cathay Pacific Airways funded study on 16 flights, 3 smoking, 13 non-smoking on 3 aircraft: B747-400, Airbus-330, and Airbus-340
All, weighted means16859895%(n = 156) smoking; (n = 125) non-smoking sections; (n = 59) non-smoking flights