Table 3

Comparison of SHS nicotine in smoking and non-smoking sections of cabins of smoking flights

Study author; number of flights; country; sponsorAverage (SD) nicotine concentration (μg/m3) smoking sectionAverage nicotine concentration (μg/m3) non-smoking sectionAverage nicotine concentration (μg/m3) non-smoking flight% of smoking section nicotine infiltrating non-smoking sectionComment
*Smoking-non-smoking border seats included; †calculated from data; ‡GM  =  geometric mean reported.
All means are arithmetic with standard deviation, unless identified as geometric means as reported.
Oldaker et al (1987)30; n = 3; unknown; tobacco industry9.2 GM‡ 23† (SD 29)†5.5 GM‡ 8.8† (SD 9.2)†Not performed60% (GM) 38% (AM)1987 RJ Reynolds study: gas phase nicotine on 3 narrow bodied B727-200, B737-200, and B737-300 aircraft; 25 smoking section samples, 52 non-smoking section samples
Malmfors et al (1989)31; n = 48; Sweden: tobacco industry36.5† (SD 22)†13.0† (SD 11)†Not performed36%1988 tobacco industry funded study on 48 SAS DC-9 and MD-80 flights; weighted average flight time of 1.8 hours
Nagda et al (1989)3; n = 61; USA; government, domestic flights13.2 (SD 15)0.12 (SD 0.22)0.040.9%1989 US Department of Transportation funded study on 92 random smoking (n = 69; 61 domestic and 8 international) and non-smoking flights (n = 23)
Nagda et al (1989)3; n = 8; USA; government, international flights15.1 (SD 13.6)0.46 (SD 0.82)0.043%
Mattson et al (1989)21; n = 4; Canada; government15*See textNot performed1989 National Cancer Institute study: personal nicotine concentrations of 4 flight attendants and 5 passengers on four, 4 hour Air Canada transcontinental flights, 2 B-727s and 2 B767s
Drake et al (1990)51; n = 4; Japan; tobacco industry16 (SD 17)4.5 (SD 3.8)Not performed28%1987 Philip Morris study on 3 B-747 international JAL smoking flights measured nicotine in all classes and zones. Based on Repace analysis of data presented. Data as reported were lower, with average levels of nicotine in the smoking and non-smoking sections being 11 μg/m3 (SD NR) and 2.5 μg/m3 (SD NR) respectively.
Eatough et al (1992)32; n = 4; unknown; tobacco industry41 (SD 26)9.3 (SD 15)Not performed23%Tobacco industry funded controlled experiment on four. 5 hour DC-10 smoking flights (airline not reported) at an air exchange rate of 30/hour, with zero recirculation of air. Data shown based on Repace analysis of data presented
Waters et al (2002)23; n = 6; USA; governmentNot given0.38–24 (range)Not givenNIOSH study on 36 US domestic and international flights. Gate-to-gate times varied from 42 to 863 minutes, and passenger occupancy in coach from 34% to 100% of capacity