Table 2

 Key indicators and their occurrence in the Asian Region

Key indicators27Occurrence of indicators in Asia
The presence of a World Health Organization (WHO) regional office or sub-officeWHO regional office based in Manila, Philippines: “the WHO regional offices... see smoking control as an important component of their long-term efforts to hold down health costs in developing countries”21
The presence of an International Organisation for Consumer Unions (IOCU) officeIOCU Asia Pacific Regional Office based in Penang, Malaysia
The conduct of a regional workshop of activistsFor example, 3rd Working Group on Tobacco or Health held in the Philippines (April 1994)28
The presence of activist group or key individualsActivists groups: for example, “Countries including China, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Korean Republic and Thailand have established national coordinating organisations on tobacco control. Singapore, Indonesia and the Philippines have active health societies”29
Key individuals: for example, Judith Mackay, Tony Hedley and TH Lam (HK), Hatai Chitanondh, Prakit Vateesatokit (Thailand), Anwar Fazal (Malaysia), Ted Chen (Taiwan)
The setting up of a non-smokers’ rights associationFor example, Japan29
The starting up of a tobacco control coalitionThe Asia Pacific Association for Control of Tobacco (APACT) was formed in Taiwan in 1993
The availability of existing or enabling legislation“By 1995 33 of 35 Asian countries had tobacco control laws on their books”30
The publication by the antis of a discussion document proposing draft legislationFor example, “A suggested model of a tobacco products control law”31
The publication of an IOCU backed industry attackFor example, “The lung goodbye: a manual of tactics for counteracting the tobacco industry in the 1980s”32
The holding of WHO World No-Tobacco DayFor example, HK, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, PRC, Singapore, Philippines and Thailand observed No-tobacco Day in 1999