Table 6

 Range of financial costs due to smoking

Lower estimateCosts (US$)Upper estimateCosts (US$)
*Source: Van Tuinen and Land.11
†Source: Tsai et al.25
‡Alternative data are not available.
ETS, environmental tobacco smoke; RR, relative risk.
% Excess absence (smokers)23%*$13668831183%†$384510305
% Excess absence (ETS)27%‡$8078179627%‡$80781796
Workplace injuries (RR)2.448$335000182.464$33704907
Estimated smoking breaks (min/cig)4$4885918128$977183624
Total$739561937$1476180632