Table 2

 Tobacco industry studies documenting social unacceptability of smoking

CompanyDate of studyTitleFindings related to social acceptability
Philip Morris1988Smoker/non-smoker segmentation studies55–57Half of six smoker segments had some negative views of smoking:
1992“Socially and financially concerned” (aka guilt laden smokers)
1994“Self conscious” (aka considerate smokers)
“Image driven” (aka image/peer concerned smokers)
1988National tracking studies58,61,62Number of smokers who believed they might quit soon on the rise
1989Smokers were feeling more pressure from others (friends, co-workers, and strangers) to quit
British American Tobacco (BAT)1978Operation Aquarius53Pressures on smokers in the UK appear to arise from family, workplace, and social environments.
1980–81Project LIBRA52,53Majority of smokers believe it is now much less socially acceptable to smoke, and smoking is a dirty habit
More than one third of all smokers (and half of “highly dissonant” smokers) believe cigarette smoking is harmful to the health of non-smokers
1980–84Project ARIES (Attitudes Restricting Individuals Enjoying Smoking)51–53Surprising depth of feeling against smoking expressed by non-smokers
As non-smokers realise they are in the majority, social acceptability of smoking will decrease
Children are particularly effective at carrying anti-smoking message to parents
Concept of cigarette with less sidestream attractive to non-smokers, but met with some scepticism from smokers
1982–85Project Taurus35,21555% of smokers frequently or occasionally felt uncomfortable smoking around others.
74% of non-smokers and 47% of smokers agreed that it was probably hazardous to be around people who are smoking
94% of smokers agreed or strongly agreed that they “try to show consideration for others when I smoke”
79% of smokers agreed or strongly agreed that they tended to smoke less when non-smokers were around
73% of smokers agreed or strongly agreed that they were concerned about the effects of their smoking on the health of others
Imperial Tobacco Canada (BAT)1988Project VISA54Awareness of passive smoking among smokers rose from 52% in 1986 to 71% in 1988
Of those smokers aware of the issue, 21% believed passive smoking is one of the most serious health hazards, up from 13% in 1986
Almost half of all smokers were confronted with workplace restrictions, up from 1/3 in 1986
RJ Reynolds1980sProject RP6082% of smokers altered their smoking behaviour in the presence of non-smokers
1990Project XA59The “social guilt mindset” identified as target for a low sidestream smoke product; “social guilt” mindset estimated to be approximately 24% of the market in 1988, and projected to grow to 32% of the market by 1990 and 52% of the market by 1995
1995Prism II Review99Eclipse product target profile:
Smokers who possess the following combination of traits are highly predisposed to accept the concept:
• Females 35+ who are restricted at work
• College graduates who face no restrictions at home
• Children in household (HH) and restricted at work
• Children in HH and non-smoking spouse
• 35+ low tar without children in HH and smoking spouse
• 21–34 low tar without children in HH and non-smoking spouse
• Any single parent
• Live alone females
• Have non-smoking spouse and restricted at work
Smokers with this profile represented “About 60% of all full price, non-menthol smokers.”