Table 1

 Relationship between residence in a state with a counter-industry campaign and current smoking among 12–17 year olds over time

Independent variablesCurrent smoking
ORSEp Value
This model also included background variables (age, sex, race/ethnicity (African American, Hispanic, and other, where white was the omitted variable), religiosity, living with both parents, employment, average weekly earnings), media use (number of hours watching TV per week, number of hours listening to radio per week), cumulative gross rating points (GRPs) of exposure to the truth® ads, and, as control variables, state population and the number of months since baseline.
The larger standard error at time 3 compared to time 1 and 2 is associated with design effects from oversampling campaign states.
*Significantly different from zero at the p<0.05 level.
OR, odds ratio; SE, standard error.
Key variables
Campaign state (CA, FL, MA, IN, MN, MS, or NJ)1.4260.3270.122
Period 2 (autumn 2000 to spring 2001)1.631*0.3590.027
Period 3 (2002)1.7980.8780.230
Campaign state × period 20.580*0.1540.040
Campaign state × period 30.488*0.1460.016
Other tobacco control programme components
Average real state cigarette excise tax0.9980.0010.217
State clean indoor air index score0.9600.0340.254
Aware of tobacco use prevention education0.628*0.0750.000
Aware of community anti-tobacco groups0.9440.1290.672