Table 2 Constituents in smoke emissions: ISO and Canadian Intense machine-smoking methods
ConstituentISO methodCanadian Intense method
DomesticImportedDomesticImported
Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)
Tar (mg/cig)10.7 (4.1)11.6 (4.0)30.4 (3.9)31.3 (5.6)
Alkaloids
    Nicotine (mg/cig)0.9 (0.3)0.9 (0.2)2.4 (0.3)2.2 (0.3)
    Pyridine (μg/cig)12.6 (4.0)15.5 (6.2)*34.9 (3.1)46.1 (6.1)***
    Quinoline (μg/cig)0.2 (0.3)0.5 (0.5)*1.0 (0.3)1.1 (0.3)
Metals
    Lead (ng/cig)16.7 (6.2)11.3 (9.0)37.2 (13.9)34.2 (7.7)
    Cadmium (ng/cig)57.6 (21.6)52.3 (20.4)160.8 (32.1)157.1 (28.7)
    Mercury (ng/cig)3.2 (0.6)3.5 (1.1)6.5 (0.8)7.2 (0.9)*
Nitrosamines
    NNN (ng/cig)25.2 (7.8)168.1 (52.6)***53.1 (12.6)353.3 (91.3)***
    NNK (ng/cig)54.0 (18.6)101.0 (45.8)***110.3 (33.2)212.1 (90.8)***
    NAT (ng/cig)40.6 (11.4)49.5 (64.7)81.9 (17.2)106.0 (134.6)
    NAB (ng/cig)3.8 (1.3)35.6 (12.1)***6.7 (1.8)79.7 (26.0)***
Polyaromatic hydrocarbons
    Benzo[a]pyrene (ng/cig)11.8 (5.0)7.1 (1.6)**24.1 (8.4)15.9 (2.0)***
Volatile organic compounds
    Benzene (μg/cig)45.6 (12.1)42.0 (9.6)89.3 (8.7)90.9 (6.7)
    1,3-Butadiene (μg/cig)42.9 (11.0)42.8 (11.6)92.9 (7.6)98.2 (11.8)*
    Toluene (μg/cig)69.8 (22.5)68.6 (17.1)155.1 (29.2)163.1 (11.9)
    Styrene (μg/cig)11.5 (10.4)9.8 (3.6)28.1 (23.4)26.5 (2.6)
    Formaldehyde (μg/cig)72.7 (31.3)40.1 (17.2)***181.5 (32.0)100.2 (20.7)***
    Acetaldehyde (μg/cig)590.6 (173.1)576.9 (160.7)1230.3 (103.0)1352.8 (174.1)***
    Propionaldehyde (μg/cig)49.3 (14.4)48.9 (13.3)105.0 (8.5)115.0 (15.9)*
    Crotonaldehyde (μg/cig)28.1 (7.8)22.9 (8.8)*67.8 (7.8)64.0 (8.4)
    Butyraldehyde (μg/cig)32.2 (9.3)33.1 (9.5)69.9 (6.5)77.5 (11.3)*
    Acrolein (μg/cig)71.7 (21.1)56.7 (17.5)*160.2 (19.4)142.9 (17.3)*
    Isoprene (μg/cig)288.6 (89.3)318.7 (80.5)608.8 (97.2)740.0 (81.3)***
    Hydroquinone (μg/cig)62.6 (15.4)57.2 (18.8)150.1 (20.1)127.0 (30.8)***
Other gas-phase
    Carbon monoxide (mg/cig)10.5 (4.2)12.2 (3.8)27.2 (2.8)29.3 (4.9)
    Hydrogen cyanide (μg/cig)119.0 (40.6)145.1 (58.6)*293.5 (41.2)423.1 (84.6)***
    Nitric oxide (μg/cig)63.7 (19.6)199.1 (41.9)***138.7 (24.0)421.8 (114.8)***
    Nitrogen oxide (μg/cig)70.2 (20.9)205.1 (44.4)***150.5 (28.1)460.1 (123.8)***
    Acetone (μg/cig)307.0 (82.2)308.0 (86.5)630.3 (51.9)686.6 (82.3)*
Aromatic amines
    1-Aminonaphthalene (ng/cig)13.7 (2.9)19.1 (4.3)***22.7 (5.9)34.5 (6.8)***
    2-Aminonaphthalene (ng/cig)8.5 (1.7)12.1 (2.4)***21.0 (6.2)21.9 (3.6)
    3-Aminobiphenyl (ng/cig)1.9 (0.4)2.7 (0.5)***3.7 (0.7)5.8 (0.9)***
    4-Aminobiphenyl (ng/cig)1.7 (0.5)2.2 (0.4)***3.7 (0.8)4.7 (0.6)***
Other
    Ammonia (μg/cig)12.4 (3.3)13.7 (4.3)26.5 (4.4)40.5 (18.0)***
    Acrylonitrile (μg/cig)9.2 (2.4)9.7 (2.9)21.8 (2.4)24.3 (1.6)***
    Resorcinol (μg/cig)1.1 (0.2)0.8 (0.6)*2.9 (0.6)2.5 (0.8)*
    Catechol (μg/cig)74.2 (18.7)69.9 (23.3)170.0 (28.2)145.7 (40.0)*
    Phenol (μg/cig)22.2 (13.7)23.3 (13.1)42.2 (26.7)41.4 (27.4)
    m,p-Cresol (μg/cig)12.4 (4.9)14.4 (5.9)24.1 (10.7)26.1 (13.2)
    o-Cresol (μg/cig)4.7 (2.2)5.7 (2.4)9.9 (4.9)10.2 (5.0)
  • NNN, N-nitrosonornicotine; NNK, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone; NAT, N-nitrosoanatabine; NAB, N-nitrosoanabasine.

  • Significance level: *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.