Table 3 Difference between ISO and Canadian machine-testing methods in smoke emission levels per mg of nicotine†
Constituent (per mg nicotine)ISOCanadian Intense
Mean (SD)Mean (SD)
    Tar (mg)11.5 (2.5)13.1 (1.0)***
Alkaloids
    Carbon monoxide (mg)11.3 (2.8)11.8 (1.6)**
    Pyridine (μg)13.8 (3.5)16.5 (2.7)***
    Quinoline (μg)0.3 (0.3)0.4 (0.1)***
Metals
    Lead (ng)17.6 (7.7)18.6 (6.8)
    Cadmium (ng)58.6 (14.3)71.4 (10.3)***
    Mercury (ng)3.4 (0.6)3.0 (0.4)***
Nitrosamines
    NNN (ng)50.5 (53.0)44.0 (46.6)***
    NNK (ng)64.2 (25.1)56.7 (22.3)***
    NAT (ng)45.7 (30.5)38.0 (24.5)***
    NAB (ng)10.1 (13.7)9.0 (13.4)***
Other
    Hydroquinone (μg)66.7 (8.3)66.0 (9.2)
    Resorcinol (μg)1.0 (0.4)1.1 (0.2)*
    Catechol (μg)79.4 (9.0)75.4 (10.8)***
    Phenol (μg)23.1 (10.2)18.3 (8.8)***
    m,p-Cresol (μg)13.3 (3.2)10.8 (3.8)***
    o-Cresol (μg)5.1 (1.6)4.3 (1.6)***
    1,3-Butadiene (μg)46.3 (8.6)42.6 (7.2)***
    Isoprene (μg)319.7 (86.0)288.9 (72.4)***
    Acrylonitrile (μg)9.8 (2.4)10.1 (1.9)
    Benzene (μg)49.2 (11.3)40.7 (7.3)***
    Toluene (μg)76.4 (21.6)71.6 (17.8)***
    Styrene (μg)12.0 (7.6)12.3 (7.4)
    Ammonia (μg)13.2 (3.3)12.8 (3.0)*
    1-Aminonaphthalene (ng)16.0 (3.2)10.8 (2.7)***
    2-Aminonaphthalene (ng)10.0 (2.1)9.8 (3.5)
    3-Aminobiphenyl (ng)2.2 (0.6)1.8 (0.4)***
    4-Aminobiphenyl (ng)1.9 (0.7)1.8 (0.5)*
    Benzo[a]pyrene (ng)12.0 (5.4)10.5 (4.7)***
    Formaldehyde (μg)70.8 (33.6)77.2 (25.0)**
    Acetaldehyde (μg)628.8 (144.6)566.1 (93.2)***
    Acetone (μg)331.2 (66.0)288.8 (42.7)***
    Acrolein (μg)73.4 (17.3)71.3 (11.8)
    Propionaldehyde (μg)52.5 (12.2)48.2 (7.4)***
    Crotonaldehyde (μg)28.3 (8.0)30.3 (4.8)**
    Butyraldehyde (μg)34.8 (7.9)32.3 (5.4)***
    Hydrogen cyanide (μg)129.5 (44.3)143.7 (36.0)***
    Nitric oxide (μg)90.9 (56.6)82.0 (48.7)***
    NOx (μg)97.8 (57.7)89.6 (53.8)***
  • NNN, N-nitrosonornicotine; NNK, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone; NAT, N-nitrosoanatabine; NAB, N-nitrosoanabasine.

  • *p<0.05 **p<0.01 ***p<0.001.

  • †Among brands with detectable limits.