Table 5

 Multilevel mixed-effects regression analyses of trends over time in the Massachusetts regimen-measured nicotine yield in smoke, number of puffs, nicotine concentration and total nicotine yield among cigarette brand families

FrequencyBrand stylesLR test* brand stylesNicotine yield in smoke (mg/cig)Number of puffsNicotine (mg/g)Nicotine (mg/cig)
p Valueβp Valueβp Valueβp Valueβp Value
LR, likelihood ratio; NC, non-convergent (regression model).
β-coefficient of time (in years) is the predictor variable, and p values are given for all outcomes.
*LR tests are tests of the significance of the difference between brand styles within each brand family. β-coefficients are shown, with p <0.05.
Basic14720NC0.0090.102–0.0390.036–0.0450.195–0.0840.007
Benson & Hedges2970.481–0.0100.2710.0430.3050.0080.904–00350.502
Camel285710.4380.010<0.0010.074<0.0010.158<0.0010.180<0.001
Carlton1881.0000.0050.7400.0520.5141.3000.0381.619<0.001
Doral168220.2700.043<0.0010.270<0.0010.384<0.0010.445<0.001
GPC127240.4130.066<0.0010.0520.039–0.1320.662–0.0500.364
Kool8225NC0.043<0.0010.0180.5910.132<0.0010.980<0.001
Marlboro233390.2870.015<0.001–0.0160.3090.0060.877–0.0370.185
Maverick1730.4600.0470.0030.1310.007–0.0370.782–0.0110.931
Merit2580.4610.0090.3990.1440.0050.2270.0280.0650.378
Natural American Spirit2590.4510.0910.022–0.0620.7700.0240.897–0.0280.896
Newport136170.4820.024<0.0010.054<0.0010.141<0.0010.134<0.001
Parliament1950.466–0.0070.5390.0210.545–0.0070.952–0.0130.869
Salem60240.4070.038<0.0010.0550.1800.482<0.0010.397<0.001
Vantage194NC0.0110.4380.163<0.0010.416<0.0010.322<0.001
Virginia Slims3510NC0.0170.1310.0320.489–0.0150.823–0.0310.516
Winston178310.4250.0070.144–0.0130.5060.311<0.0010.163<0.001