Table 2 Cross-sectional ordinal logistic regression model predicting higher lifetime smoking (nā€Š=ā€Š794)
VariableCategorySample sizeProportional odds ratio (95% CI)
CrudeAdjusted
Receptivity to tobacco marketingNo receptivity312ReferenceReference
Moderate receptivity914.143.58 (2.20 to 5.82)
High receptivity3813.062.51 (1.76 to 3.58)
Movie smoking (occurrences seen)First quartile*49ReferenceReference
Second quartile1461.100.94 (0.44 to 2.01)
Third quartile2341.351.03 (0.50 to 2.09)
Fourth quartile3551.701.02 (0.50 to 2.07)
Child genderMale418ReferenceReference
Female3660.981.11 (0.79 to 1.57)
Child age10ā€“11 years91ReferenceReference
12 years1942.752.90 (1.43 to 5.88)
13ā€“14 years4997.037.26 (3.73 to 14.14)
Parent educationBoth completed high school498ReferenceReference
Neither or one completed high school2861.341.21 (0.87 to 1.68)
Parent or sibling smokesNo231ReferenceReference
Yes5532.121.71 (1.18 to 2.48)
Any friends smokeNo124ReferenceReference
Yes6603.811.82 (1.07 to 3.07)
School performanceExcellent128ReferenceReference
Good2511.230.88 (0.54 to 1.45)
Average/below average4052.091.08 (0.67 to 1.73)
Sensation seekingLowest third101ReferenceReference
Middle third1971.290.92 (0.51 to 1.65)
Highest third4863.471.74 (1.02 to 2.98)
RebelliousnessLowest third35ReferenceReference
Middle third1851.370.91 (0.35 to 2.33)
Highest third5643.661.45 (0.57 to 3.66)
Self-esteemLowest third368ReferenceReference
Middle third2700.861.14 (0.81 to 1.62)
Highest third1460.641.10 (0.69 to 1.74)
Maternal demandingnessLowest third309ReferenceReference
Middle third2770.600.74 (0.52 to 1.05)
Highest third1980.631.04 (0.68 to 1.58)
Maternal responsivenessLowest third387ReferenceReference
Middle third2510.590.84 (0.59 to 1.22)
Highest third1460.530.64 (0.41 to 1.02)
Parental disapproval of smokingBoth disapprove486ReferenceReference
Neither or mixed disapproval2981.791.36 (0.99 to 1.88)
  • *Quartiles of exposure were determined on the entire cross-sectional sample, including never-smokers; school is included as a covariate.