Table 2 Comparison between waterpipe and cigarette particle emissions (number of total particles and carbon monoxide per breath)
Total number of ultrafine particles (0.02 to 1 μm)Carbon monoxide (mg)
Waterpipe74.4 (16.3)×1091.79 (0.61)
Cigarette9.24 (−1.2)×1091.06 (0.50)
  • Mean values (SD). Differences between waterpipes and cigarettes were significant for particles (t test, p<0.001) and CO (t test, p<0.01).