Table 3 Longitudinal multilevel model for total number of cigarette advertisements* per store predicted by time and neighbourhood characteristics, controlling for store type
CoefficientRobust standard errorp Value
Fixed effects
For intercept:
For Slope (growth rate):
    Convenience store with petrol0.450.440.302
    Convenience store without petrol2.770.550.001
    Large pharmacy0.190.570.735
    Petrol only−1.630.550.003
    Liquor store2.260.510.001
    Population density quartile 4−1.370.410.001
    High proportion of African–Americans2.450.480.001
    High proportion of Asian/Pacific Islanders−0.750.460.108
    High proportion of Hispanics−0.720.420.088
Random effects
    Intercept variance (R0)540.430.001
    Slope (growth rate) variance (R01)40.040.001
  • *Advertisments include interior and exterior signs, shelving units, displays, and interior and exterior functional items.

  • †SES (socioeconomic standing) is a composite measure; higher scores equal higher socioeconomic standing.