Table 4 Longitudinal multilevel model for proportion of advertisements* with a sales promotion predicted by time and neighbourhood characteristics, controlling for store type
CoefficientRobust standard errorp Value
Fixed effects
For intercept:
For slope (growth rate):
    Convenience store with petrol0.0350.0060.000
    Convenience store without petrol0.0250.0060.000
    Large pharmacy0.0330.0090.000
    Petrol only0.0400.0120.002
    Liquor store0.0120.0050.025
    Population density quartile 4−0.0100.0050.039
    High proportion of Asian/Pacific Islanders0.0010.0050.901
    High proportion of African–Americans0.0100.0050.031
    High proportion of Hispanics0.0010.0050.872
Random effects
    Intercept variance (R0)0.0510.000
    Slope (growth rate) variance (R01)0.0020.019
  • *Advertisments include interior and exterior signs, shelving units, displays, and interior and exterior functional items.

  • †SES (socioeconomic standing) is a composite measure; higher scores equal higher socioeconomic standing.