Table 1 Prevalence of snuff use and chronic bronchitis relative to socio-demographic and exposure characteristics
CharacteristicsSnuff use (%)*Chronic bronchitis (%)*
Prevalence (95% CI)16.1 (14.6–17.6)3.2 (2.6–3.8)
Asset index (tertiles) (n = 4447):
Poorest18.55.6
Middle16.62.4
Richest10.61.3
p Value<0.001<0.001
Education level (n = 4449):
    None24.55.6
    1–7 years schooling16.63.3
    8–12 years schooling11.51.8
    >12 years schooling2.5
p Value<0.001<0.001
Residence (n = 4464):
    Urban15.32.2
    Rural16.94.1
p Value0.30<0.01
History of tuberculosis (n = 4451):
    Never15.92.8
    Ever23.321.1
p Value0.06<0.001
Cooking fuel used (n = 4455):
    Gas/electricity/paraffin15.22.3
    Wood/coal/dung (smoky)19.16.2
p Value0.02<0.001
Occupational exposure (n = 4455):
    Never15.82.8
    Ever21.75.8
p Value<0.01<0.001
Smoking status (n = 4464):
    Never smoked17.12.9
    Ex-smoker14.91.5
    Current smoker1.37.3
p Value<0.001<0.001
Snuff use status (n = 4464):
    Non-user2.8
    Use 1–8 times/day4.3
    Use >8 times/day11.7
p Value<0.01
  • Sample sizes for some variables do not sum to the total (4464) due to missing data.

  • *Weighted prevalence estimates.