Table 3 Associations between characteristics at the community and individual levels with past-month smoking for adolescents over time: the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC)
VariableUnadjusted bivariate OR (95% CI)p ValueMinimally adjusted* bivariate OR (95% CI)p ValueFully adjusted multivariate OR* (95% CI)p Value
Community levelPopulation age 18+, %1.01 (0.99 to 1.02)0.39
College educated, %0.99 (0.98 to 0.99)<0.01
Rural, %1.00 (1.00 to 1.00)<0.01
Caucasian, %1.00 (1.00 to 1.01)0.01
Median household income1.00 (1.00 to 1.00)<0.01
Region: rural vs suburban1.25 (1.10 to 1.42)<0.01
Region: urban vs suburban1.12 (0.92 to 1.36)0.27
CIA policy2.01 (1.83 to 2.20)<0.012.19 (1.98 to 2.43)<0.011.06 (0.93 to 1.21)0.41
Individual levelAge, years1.29 (1.28 to 1.31)<0.011.29 (1.27 to 1.31)<0.011.26 (1.24 to 1.29)<0.01
Male1.00 (0.89 to 1.12)0.93
African–American vs Caucasian0.53 (0.38 to 0.74)<0.010.57 (0.39 to 0.82)<0.010.21 (0.12 to 0.36)<0.01
Native American vs Caucasian2.69 (1.95 to 3.71)<0.013.46 (2.47 to 4.84)<0.011.72 (1.09 to 2.71)0.04
Asian vs Caucasian0.62 (0.39 to 0.98)0.040.63 (0.40 to 1.00)0.050.56 (0.32 to 0.96)0.04
Latino vs Caucasian0.58 (0.41 to 0.83)<0.010.67 (0.46 to 0.98)0.040.75 (0.48 to 1.17)0.21
Other vs Caucasian1.18 (0.81 to 1.71)0.391.20 (0.82 to 1.76)0.121.09 (0.66 to 1.81)0.74
Friends (continuous)2.16 (2.09 to 2.23)<0.012.17 (2.10 to 2.24)<0.011.96 (1.88 to 2.03)<0.01
Home ban0.83 (0.77 to 0.91)<0.010.82 (0.76 to 0.89)<0.010.88 (0.80 to 0.96)<0.01
Mother smoking (baseline)2.06 (1.80 to 2.32)<0.012.21 (1.93 to 2.53)<0.011.38 (1.16 to 1.65)<0.01
Father smoking (baseline)2.15 (1.88 to 2.46)<0.012.25 (1.95 to 2.58)<0.011.39 (1.16 to 1.65)<0.01
  • *Adjusted for percentage college educated, percentage rural, percentage Caucasian, median household income and age of entry into the MACC study.

  • OR, odds ratio.