Table 5 Adjusted relative risk (RR) (95% CIs) of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart disease, stroke, lung cancer and other smoking-related cancer, by smoking category and sex, with sustained never smokers as reference. (23 560 male and 25 122 female participants aged 20–49 at initial screening*)
Deaths fromSustained never smokers“Starters”Sustained ex-smokers“Resumers”Sustained smokers“Quitters”
Men (n = 23 560 aged 20–49 years)
All causes:
    RR†1.001.40 (0.84 to 2.33)1.11 (1.00 to 1.24)1.60 (1.34 to 1.92)2.75 (2.54 to 2.99)1.51 (1.34 to 1.71)
    RR‡1.001.42 (0.85 to 2.37)1.07 (0.96 to 1.19)1.59 (1.32 to 1.91)2.61 (2.40 to 2.83)1.39 (1.23 to 1.58)
Cardiovascular disease:
    RR†1.001.64 (0.73 to 3.69)1.06 (0.88 to 1.27)2.02 (1.52 to 2.67)3.16 (2.75 to 3.61)1.72 (1.41 to 2.11)
    RR‡1.001.76 (0.79 to 3.97)0.97 (0.80 to 1.18)2.01 (1.51 to 2.67)2.99 (2.60 to 3.43)1.55 (1.26 to 1.90)
Ischaemic heart disease:
    RR†1.002.55 (1.13 to 5.75)1.08 (0.85 to 1.36)2.10 (1.49 to 2.97)3.43 (2.89 to 4.06)1.79 (1.39 to 2.29)
    RR‡1.002.81 (1.24 to 6.35)0.99 (0.78 to 1.26)2.11 (1.49 to 2.99)3.24 (2.72 to 3.86)1.58 (1.23 to 2.04)
Stroke:
    RR†1.00NA1.36 (0.88 to 2.08)1.45 (0.65 to 3.23)2.63 (1.87 to 3.71)1.96 (1.22 to 3.15)
    RR‡1.00NA1.34 (0.87 to 2.08)1.45 (0.57 to 3.20)2.57 (1.82 to 3.66)1.88 (1.16 to 3.04)
Lung cancer:
    RR†1.00NA3.13 (1.44 to 6.86)6.49 (2.42 to 17.44)27.44 (14.17 to 53.15)5.51 (2.47 to 12.27)
    RR‡1.00NA3.17 (1.45 to 6.94)6.31 (2.35 to 16.97)25.22 (13.00 to 38.94)5.19 (2.31 to 11.64)
Other smoking-related cancer:
    RR†1.001.90 (0.47 to 7.75)0.86 (0.59 to 1.25)1.06 (0.53 to 2.13)2.56 (1.97 to 3.32)1.42 (0.95 to 2.13)
    RR‡1.001.93 (0.47 to 7.88)0.84 (0.57 to 1.22)1.07 (0.53 to 2.13)2.41 (1.85 to 3.13)1.28 (0.85 to 1.94)
Women (n = 25 122 aged 20–49 years)
All causes:
    RR†1.001.22 (0.77 to 1.92)1.01 (0.85 to 1.19)1.37 (1.06 to 1.77)2.49 (2.30 to 2.70)1.65 (1.39 to 1.95)
    RR‡1.001.22 (0.77 to 1.92)1.06 (0.90 to 1.26)1.40 (1.08 to 1.81)2.49 (2.29 to 2.71)1.64 (1.38 to 1.95)
Cardiovascular disease:
    RR†1.002.29 (1.08 to 4.86)0.87 (0.58 to 1.29)2.09 (1.29 to 3.38)3.73 (3.16 to 4.40)1.86 (1.30 to 2.67)
    RR‡1.002.28 (1.07 to 4.86)0.98 (0.65 to 1.48)2.09 (1.26 to 3.38)3.99 (3.35 to 4.73)1.93 (1.34 to 2.78)
Ischaemic heart disease:
    RR†1.001.37 (0.34 to 5.55)0.73 (0.40 to 1.37)1.94 (0.95 to 3.99)4.07 (3.22 to 5.15)2.42 (1.51 to 3.87)
    RR‡1.001.33 (0.33 to 5.41)0.84 (0.45 to 1.57)1.82 (0.84 to 3.92)4.12 (3.23 to 5.26)2.42 (1.51 to 3.88)
Stroke:
    RR†1.002.15 (0.53 to 8.80)0.84 (0.40 to 1.76)2.63 (1.20 to 5.73)3.36 (2.48 to 4.55)1.43 (0.69 to 2.98)
    RR‡1.002.03 (0.50 to 8.30)0.86 (0.39 to 1.88)2.50 (1.08 to 5.79)3.46 (2.52 to 4.74)1.46 (0.70 to 3.05)
Lung cancer:
    RR†1.00NA1.32 (0.38 to 4.58)4.48 (1.30 to 15.50)23.99 (14.20 to 40.51)4.34 (1.68 to 11.18)
    RR‡1.00NA1.38 (0.40 to 4.82)4.58 (1.32 to 15.97)23.47 (13.58 to 40.55)4.64 (1.78 to 12.07)
Other smoking-related cancer:
    RR†1.000.61 (0.09 to 4.40)0.80 (0.45 to 1.42)1.23 (0.54 to 2.79)2.19 (1.70 to 2.82)1.19 (0.66 to 2.17)
    RR‡1.000.63 (0.09 to 4.49)0.83 (0.46 to 1.47)1.26 (0.55 to 2.88)2.17 (1.67 to 2.83)1.01 (0.53 to 1.94)
  • *Participants not reporting cardiovascular disease, diabetes or treatment for hypertension, or symptoms of angina pectoris or atherosclerosis obliterans at the last examination; †adjusted for age; ‡adjusted for age, systolic blood pressure, total serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, physical activity during leisure, body mass index (kg/m2), height, disability pension, sickness leave and family history of coronary heart disease recorded at the last examination.

  • NA, data not applicable.