Table 1

Overview of Malaysian and Thai cigarette markets and sample characteristics

Adult prevalence (within last month)
% Smokers factory made only#82.641.8
% Smokers RYO only#7.632.9
% Mixed FM and RYO#9.825.3
Tar, nicotine, CO labellingMaximum only (20 mg tar, 1.5 mg nicotine) since 1994Never
Lights brandingEnglish onlyImported: English (since 1992)
Since 1992TTM: English/Thai (since 1994) (banned Mar 2007)
Sample characteristics
Age groups (%)*
 Female (%)*3.93.9
 Urban (%)*63.731.5
Education levels (%)
 No schooling/elementary22.765.3
Income (%)
Cig per day (%)*
 5 or less15.015.1
Time to first cig (%)*
 Before breakfast10.343.1
 With/after breakfast70.828.5
 Later in the day8.33.9
Plan to quit
 Yes (%)*54.542.6
 Made quit attempt before (%)*59.780.3
Awareness of smoking harm
 Mean (SD)5.30 (0.13)5.71 (0.07)
Quit self-efficacy (%)
 Not at all sure38.535.7
 Somewhat sure41.736.9
 Very sure14.517.8
 Extremely sure5.29.6
Belief smoking has damage health (%)*
 Not at all27.86.1
 Very much18.165.7
Worried smoking will damage health (%)*
 Not at all18.67.2
 Very much25.755.9
  • TTM, Thailand Tobacco Monopoly; RYO roll your own.

  • * Country differences at p<0.05.

  • #Estimates from Young et al.19