Table 4

Effects of tobacco use prevention education (TUPE) implementation activities on tobacco use and other precursors (bivariate analyses)

Association of outcome with level of TUPE implementationCross-sectional associations of TUPE implementation with the outcome at baselineChanges in the impact of the TUPE implementation on the outcome
Outcomeγ coefficient (SE)*p Valueγ coefficient (SE)p Value
Smoking index0.049 (0.019)0.009−0.070 (0.022)0.004
Intention to smoke0.030 (0.019)0.114−0.059 (0.022)0.013
Numbers of friends smoking0.037 (0.019)0.051−0.076 (0.022)0.001
Perception of smoking prevalence in the same grade0.041 (0.020)0.040−0.021 (0.023)0.354
Positive social consequences−0.002 (0.018)0.911−0.020 (0.023)0.374
Negative social consequences−0.003 (0.018)0.8670.019 (0.023)0.390
Positive health consequences−0.014 (0.017)0.410−0.005 (0.022)0.853
Negative health consequences−0.012 (0.018)0.5050.029 (0.023)0.208
Pro-tobacco industry attitude0.011 (0.018)0.541−0.018 (0.022)0.414
Anti-tobacco industry attitude0.004 (0.019)0.8330.001 (0.023)0.933
  • Values are the effect of a one unit change in the predictor, TUPE implementation, measured as a global implementation index.

  • * γ zero-one (γ01) in equation 4.

  • γ one-one (γ11) in equation 4.