Table 5

Effects of external factors on smoking index (multivariate hierarchical linear regression model)

PredictorCross-sectional effects on smoking index at baseline*Changes in the impact of predictor on smoking index over time
γ Coefficient (SE)p Valueγ Coefficient (SE)p Value
Community support index−0.062 (0.014)0.001−0.005 (0.022)0.796
Anti-tobacco media messages0.020 (0.015)0.1820.048 (0.021)0.021
Enrolment−0.042 (0.022)0.0220.045 (0.021)0.029
School socioeconomic context−0.108 (0.024)0.0010.133 (0.023)0.001
School TUPE implementation index0.020 (0.019)0.297−0.043 (0.023)0.064
  • Smoking index is the standardised sum of four cigarette and one cigar smoking measures (α=0.68)

  • School socioeconomic context is the standardised sum of parent education, API scores and percentage of students eligible for federal school lunch subsidies (α=0.91)

  • * γ zero-one (γ01) in equation 4.

  • γ one-one (γ11) in equation 4.