Table 1

Participant characteristics at baseline

CharacteristicProactive telephone counselling (n=769)Controls (n=793)p Value§
Gender, %
Age, years
 Mean (SD)45.4 (12.7)44.4 (13.8)0.2
Country of birth, %
Education, %
 Primary only0.91.00.5
 Year 7–1032.931.3
 HSC or TAFE46.746.2
 University or tertiary18.219.2
Marital status, %
 Married/de facto52.657.40.01*
 Never married20.121.1
Employment status, %
 Employed full time45.144.60.4
 Employed part time/casual20.818.5
 Permanently unable to work6.04.7
 Home duties7.59.2
Area of residence, %
Age began regular smoking
 Mean (SD)17.3 (4.4)17.6 (4.7)0.2
Time to first cigarette, min
 Mean (SD)47.1 (84.4)55.4 (114.4)0.1
Cigarettes per day
 Mean (SD)19.9 (9.6)18.9 (9.9)0.03*
Ever quit for ≥24 h, %
 No/don't know10.910.3
Quit attempt in past 12 months, %
Quitting intentions, %
 Will quit in next 30 days29.026.90.3
 Will quit in next 6 months40.838.7
 Will not quit in next 6 months25.729.9
 Don't know4.44.5
Other household smokers, %
Alcohol consumption
 Less than weekly21.923.8
 Don't drink alcohol17.116.7
  • *p<0.05.

  • Missing data range 0–7.

  • Missing data range 0–7.

  • § Categorical outcomes were analysed with a χ2 test and continuous outcomes with a t test.

  • HSC, Higher School Certificate (Year 12); TAFE, Technical and Further Education.