Table 1 Summary of studies included in review with direct healthcare cost of ill health attributable to smoking in the United Kingdom
ReferenceSettingDirect cost (method)Disease included in estimate
Parrott et al, 19984England, 1991Method 1:Cancer
£1.5 billion (attributable fractions)Lung, upper respiratory sites, oesophagus, bladderkidney, stomach, pancreas, myeloid leukaemia
Method 2:£1.4 billion (cost comparison: smokers versus non-smokers)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia
Ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, aortic aneurysm, amyocardial degeneration, atherosclerosis
Ulcer of stomach and duodenum
Buck et al, 19975UK, 1991Method 1:Not specified
£1.7 billion (attributable fractions)
Method 2:
£1.4 billion (using 1994 General Household Survey data and cost to the NHS of treating illnesses caused by smoking)
  • NHS, National Health Service.