Table 4

Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of dying from various causes of death for current cigarette smokers compared with never-smokers as the referent group

Cause of deathMalesFemales
Number of deathsRR(95% CI)Number of deathsRR(95% CI)
All causes combined20551.3(1.2–1.4)4971.8(1.3–2.5)
 All sites combined4541.5(1.2–1.9)931.7(0.8–3.7)
 Lip, oral cavity, and pharynx134.2(0.5–32.9)0 4-150
 Nasopharynx163.9(0.9–17.0)2 4-150
 Oesophagus261.0(0.4–2.6)1 4-150
 Stomach571.9(1.0–3.5)12 4-150
 Colon and rectum420.8(0.4–1.5)2 4-150
 Liver1102.2(1.4–3.6)18 4-150
 Pancreas150.3(0.1–0.9)4 4-150
 Trachea, bronchus, and lung1053.7(2.1–6.6)223.6(1.0–12.2)
 Cervix uteri 4-150 4-150 65.3(0.6–46.8)
 Urinary bladder and other urinary120.5(0.2–1.7)1 4-150
Other diseases
 Ischaemic heart disease1431.8(1.2–2.6)231.9(0.4–8.4)
 Other heart diseases1431.4(1.0–2.0)491.5(0.5–4.3)
 Cerebrovascular disease3261.0(0.8–1.2)931.0(0.4–2.6)
 Arterial disease123.0(0.7–13.7)2 4-150
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases591.9(1.0–3.5)10 4-150
 Peptic ulcer124.5(0.6–36.4)517.8(2.9–108.0)
  • 4-150 Relative risk was not estimated due to small number of deaths.

  • All analyses were adjusted for age and other potential risk factors. See text for details.