Table 5

Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of dying from major diseases according to level of cigarette consumption among cigarette smokers at recruitment compared with never-smokers as the referent group

Cause of deathDaily cigarette consumptionp
RR(95% CI)RR(95% CI)RR(95% CI)
All causes combined1.39(1.24–1.55)1.20(1.07–1.34)1.65(1.35–2.02)<0.01
 All sites combined1.4(1.1–1.8)1.5(1.2–1.9)2.4(1.7–3.5)<0.01
 Lip, oral cavity, and pharynx2.3(0.2–25.5)4.7(0.6–38.8)7.5(0.7–86.7) 0.05
 Nasopharynx3.6(0.8–16.3)3.3(0.8–14.0)3.1(0.3–31.5) 0.13
 Oesophagus0.8(0.2–2.8)1.5(0.6–4.2)2.0(0.4–10.2) 0.25
 Stomach1.7(0.9–3.4)1.6(0.8–3.1)3.0(1.1–8.3) 0.06
 Liver2.1(1.2–3.5)1.9(1.2–3.2)1.8(0.7–4.5) 0.02
 Trachea, bronchus, and lung3.1(1.7–5.6)3.6(2.0–6.4)8.3(4.0–17.3)<0.01
Other diseases
 Ischaemic heart disease1.9(1.2–2.9)1.6(1.0–2.4)2.8(1.4–5.5) 0.01
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease1.7(0.9–3.3)2.0(1.1–3.9)0.8(0.1–6.0) 0.09
 Peptic ulcer9.9(2.1–47.2)9.1(1.6–52.5) 5-150 0.08
  • 5-150 Relative risk was not estimated due to the small number of deaths.

  • All analyses were adjusted for age and other potential risk factors. See text for details.