Table 6

Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of dying from major diseases according to duration of smoking among cigarette smokers at recruitment compared with never-smokers as the referent group

Cause of deathDuration of smoking (years)p
RR(95% CI)RR(95% CI)RR(95% CI)
All causes combined1.26(1.07–1.49) 1.25(1.06–1.48)1.32(1.20–1.47)<0.01
 All sites combined0.9(0.6–1.4) 1.2(0.8–1.6)1.8(1.4–2.2)<0.01
 Lip, oral cavity, and pharynx 6-150  6.0(0.6–55.2)4.5(0.5–38.4) 0.08
 Nasopharynx4.4(0.8–23.5) 2.6(0.5–14.4)3.5(0.8–15.1) 0.22
 Oesophagus 6-150  2.4(0.7–8.9)1.3(0.5–3.4) 0.43
 Stomach1.7(0.7–4.4) 0.7(0.2–2.4)2.0(1.1–3.7) 0.04
 Liver1.6(0.8–3.2) 1.0(0.5–2.1)2.5(1.6–4.1)<0.01
 Trachea, bronchus, and lung0.9(0.3–3.1) 2.6(1.2–5.9)4.7(2.7–8.2)<0.01
Other diseases
 Ischaemic heart disease2.0(1.1–3.6) 1.0(0.5–2.1)1.9(1.3–2.8) 0.01
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease1.8(0.7–4.8) 2.3(0.7–7.1)1.8(1.0–3.2) 0.07
 Peptic ulcer5.4(0.5–56.1)16.9(2.8–103.5)8.7(1.7–45.6) 0.07
  • 6-150 Relative risk was not estimated due to the small number of deaths. All analyses were adjusted for age and other potential risk factors. See text for details.