Table 7

Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of dying from major diseases according to age of smoking initiation among cigarette smokers at recruitment compared with never-smokers as the referent group

Cause of deathAge of smoking initiation (years)p
RR(95% CI)RR(95% CI)RR(95% CI)
All causes combined1.38(1.24–1.54)1.30(1.12–1.50) 1.18(1.04–1.35)<0.01
 All sites combined1.7(1.4–2.2)1.7(1.3–2.3) 1.0(0.7–1.4)<0.01
 Lip, oral cavity, and pharynx5.7(0.7–46.1) 7-150  4.5(0.5–43.5) 0.11
 Nasopharynx3.3(0.8–14.1)4.8(1.0–23.5) 2.8(0.5–14.8) 0.07
 Oesophagus1.3(0.5–3.6)1.5(0.4–5.3) 1.1(0.3–4.0) 0.62
 Stomach2.2(1.2–4.2)0.6(0.2–2.2) 1.5(0.7–3.3) 0.02
 Liver2.2(1.4–3.7)2.3(1.2–4.2) 1.4(0.8–2.6)<0.01
 Trachea, bronchus, and lung4.6(2.6–8.1)5.9(3.0–11.3) 1.5(0.7–3.3)<0.01
Other diseases
 Ischaemic heart disease1.9(0.7–4.9)1.6(0.9–2.8) 1.8(1.1–2.8) 0.01
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease2.2(1.2–4.1)1.8(0.7–4.5) 1.3(0.6–2.8) 0.01
 Peptic ulcer8.5(1.5–46.6)4.1(0.3–50.4)10.9(2.3–52.2) 0.07
  • 7-150 Relative risk was not estimated due to the small number of deaths.

  • All analyses were adjusted for age and other potential risk factors. See text for details.