Table 8

Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of dying from major diseases according to cumulative cigarette smoking among cigarette smokers at recruitment compared with never-smokers as the referent group

Cause of deathCumulative cigarette smoking (pack-years)p
RR(95% CI)RR(95% CI)RR(95% CI)
All causes combined1.31(1.16–1.47)1.33(1.18–1.50) 1.27(1.11–1.45)<0.01
 All sites combined1.1(0.9–1.3)1.7(1.3–2.1) 2.0(1.5–2.6)<0.01
 Lip, oral cavity, and pharynx1.9(0.2–21.2)3.9(0.4–34.4)11.6(1.2–109.1) 0.01
 Nasopharynx3.2(0.7–14.5)3.9(0.9–16.7) 2.8(0.4–18.9) 0.13
 Oesophagus0.4(0.1–2.1)2.1(0.8–5.9) 1.2(0.4–4.1) 0.26
 Stomach1.3(0.6–2.8)1.5(0.7–3.1) 2.8(1.4–5.8)<0.01
 Liver1.7(1.0–2.9)2.1(1.2–3.5) 2.5(1.3–4.6)<0.01
 Trachea, bronchus, and lung2.3(1.2–4.4)4.5(2.4–8.1) 5.3(2.8–10.0)<0.01
Other diseases
 Ischaemic heart disease1.9(1.2–2.9)1.9(1.2–3.0) 1.5(0.9–2.5) 0.03
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases1.6(0.8–3.4)2.0(1.0–4.1) 1.8(0.9–3.8) 0.07
 Peptic ulcer9.5(1.9–46.3)9.3(1.5–59.2) 9.4(1.3–68.8) 0.06
  • All analyses were adjusted for age and other potential risk factors. See text for details.