Table 2

Levels of pH, nicotine and unionised nicotine found in international oral tobacco products

Product description/nameProduct category*Country of originWHO regionpHTotal NicotinePercentage of nicotine unionisedUnionised nicotine, mg/g
Special Gul PowderIIBangladeshSEARO8.790.2534.
Eagle Gul Powder §IIBangladeshSEARO9.220.1333.40.192.831.0
Sada Pata Tobacco Leaf§IBangladeshSEARO5.920.1419.70.20.770.15
Hakim Pury Wet Zarda (with areca nut) **IIIBangladeshSEARO6.510.0421.30.22.950.63
F. Rahman & Co Zarda††IBangladeshSEARO6.280.039.550.151.760.17
Baba Zarda 120§IIndiaSEARO5.220.0230.
Super Raja Khaini††IIIndiaSEARO9.650.024.790.2297.74.68
Spitt Raja Chap Khaini** ††IIIndiaSEARO9.790.092.530.0498.32.48
Gutkha product 1 (handmade)IIIIndiaSEARO7.450.190.910.2120.80.19
Gutkha product 2 (handmade)IIIIndiaSEARO7.990.080.920.1947.40.44
Gutkha product 3 (handmade)IIIIndiaSEARO8.600.051.410.1978.61.11
Gutkha product 4 (handmade)IIIIndiaSEARO8.480.072.240.5250.21.13
Gutkha product 5 (handmade)IIIIndiaSEARO8.610.254.200.6179.43.33
Gutkha product 7 (handmade)IIIIndiaSEARO7.430.011.760.5920.10.35
Rajdarbar GutkhaIIIIndiaSEARO8.460.021.570.1772.81.14
Shikhar GutkhaIIIIndiaSEARO8.880.071.670.2287.71.47
Sitar GutkhaIIIIndiaSEARO8.590.021.090.1678.30.86
Bahar Gutkha‡‡IIIIndiaSEARO8.641.290.1580.31.03
Dhamaal Gutkha (Saffron)‡‡IIIIndiaSEARO8.542.330.0876.41.78
RMD Gutkha‡‡IIIIndiaSEARO8.491.730.4674.31.28
Gutkha (handmade; Karachi)IIIPakistanEMRO8.480.030.160.0173.60.12
City Gutkha (Saffron)IIIPakistanEMRO8.
JM Extra Strong GutkhaIIIPakistanEMRO8.540.121.410.2576.51.08
Naswar, sample 1§§IIPakistanEMRO9.140.0214.20.192.813.2
Naswar, sample 2§§IIPakistanEMRO8.760.0410.
Toombak, sample 1 (black)§§IISudanEMRO9.840.0710.30.198.510.2
Toombak, sample 2 (black)§§IISudanEMRO10.10.09.560.2399.19.47
Toombak, sample 5 (brown)§IISudanEMRO7.380.0528.20.518.35.16
Toombak, sample 7 (black)‡‡IISudanEMRO9.880.2010.70.498.610.6
Nigerian Snuff (traditional)**IINigeriaAFRO9.420.162.490.3396.12.39
Joseph & H. Wilson Medicated 99 Snuff$$IINigeriaAFRO9.020.177.410.0790.76.72
NTSU Ugway Snuff$$IISouth AfricaAFRO9.150.1414.90.192.913.8
South African Snuff (traditional)**IISouth AfricaAFRO9.
Singleton's Super Menthol Snuff**IISouth AfricaAFRO9.350.102.950.0295.42.82
Super Taxi Snuff§§IISouth AfricaAFRO10.
Peter Stuyvesant Menthol SnusISouth AfricaAFRO6.790.0814.10.15.440.77
Peter Stuyvesant Blue SnusISouth AfricaAFRO6.480.0217.20.72.740.47
Svenskt Tobacco-rette SnusISouth AfricaAFRO6.560.0515.
Lucky Strike Original Red SnusISouth AfricaAFRO7.020.1713.40.28.901.19
Lucky Strike Menthol SnusISouth AfricaAFRO6.660.0015.
General Original SnusISwedenEURO7.010.028.340.088.980.75
General Loose SnusISwedenEURO6.610.007.790.073.770.29
General White Portion Wintergreen SnusISwedenEURO7.070.017.760.2410.00.78
General White Portion SnusISwedenEURO6.860.
Catch Peppermint SnusISwedenEURO7.210.0215.20.313.32.03
Nasway¶¶ **IIUzbekistanEURO8.430.098.890.6471.56.36
Vencedor Chimó**IIVenezuelaAMRO6.980.0916.
Fabrica De Chimó**IIVenezuelaAMRO9.400.035.290.1495.94.99
El Tigirito Chimó**IIVenezuelaAMRO8.560.0310.40.377.28.02
El Tabacote Chimó**IIVenezuelaAMRO9.120.0827.51.292.525.4
Chimó La Chinata C.A.**IIVenezuelaAMRO9.040.0130.
  • Total nicotine values represent measurements made in triplicate unless noted otherwise; total nicotine and calculated unionised nicotine are presented as mg/g wet weight. pH and total nicotine values were produced form measurements of three separate samples of tobacco (n=3) unless otherwise noted.

  • * Product categories are: I) tobacco only (with or without flavorants), II) tobacco with alkaline modifier, and III) tobacco with areca nut and slaked lime (with or without piper betel leaf and catechu). These product designations were made based on ingredients listed on packaging, product pH and the presence or absence of areca nut based on analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT/IR).

  • WHO Regions: SEARO=Southeast Asia; EMRO=Eastern Mediterranean; AFRO=Africa; EURO=Europe; AMRO=Americas.

  • Due to limited sample size, pH measurements were made in duplicate (n=2).

  • § The tobacco in this product is most similar to Nicotiana rustica L., a high nicotine-containing species, as determined by FT/IR.

  • The presence of areca nut (Areca catechu L.) in this product was confirmed by FT/IR.

  • ** FT/IR determination of tobacco type was inconclusive because the sample did not match the spectra for N tabacum or N rustica; these products may contain another tobacco species. Identification of chimó by FT/IR may be affected by product preparation.

  • †† FT/IR analysis revealed that these products contain little or no areca nut (A catechu L.).

  • ‡‡ Due to limited sample size, only one pH measurement was performed.

  • §§ The tobacco in this product is most similar to N tabacum the species most commonly used in U.S. products when analysed by FT/IR.

  • ¶¶ Total nicotine values for this product were measured eight times (n=8).