Table 3

The concentrations of five tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) found among various international oral tobacco products

Sample descriptionCountry of origin*TSNAs, ng/gTotal
NABNATNNKNNNNNALTSNAs
MeanSDMeanSDMeanSDMeanSDMeanSD(ng/g)
Special Gul PowderB23702047709013705080203705904017100
Eagle Gul PowderB19803042408013302051904106308013400
Sada Pata Tobacco LeafB68.910.42942521.74.11651524.57.6574
Hakim Pury ZardaB6030190118005003840250286001600346031053700
F. Rahman & Co ZardaB1020531106045744280120248139120
Baba Zarda 120I21011115050829292910120390305490
Super Raja KhainiI258070222030502231680040014403023500
Spitt Raja Chap KhainiI219012030310288301750070013505021600
Gutkha product 1 (handmade)I1600450231060037584186004800103029023900
Gutkha product 2 (handmade)I10.01.851.87.820.25.31542827.74.8264
Gutkha product 3 (handmade)I13.90.641.53.27.11.2192323.41.4278
Gutkha product 4 (handmade)I9.640.94125220.40.82081710.80.9374
Gutkha product 5 (handmade)I184122841047.32.416103057.92.22180
Gutkha product 7 (handmade)I28.61.185.47.846.25.32922313.50.9466
Rajdarbar GutkhaI11.33.31111957.19.31672423.22.7370
Shikhar GutkhaI6.20.6911014586.51772836.24.4387
Sitar GutkhaI85.38.9282152412910808077.26.61770
Bahar GutkhaI16.24.61002568.720.42065029.66.2420
Dhamaal Gutkha-SaffronI13330126314561211280280258772250
RMD GutkhaI52.97.5118262364258796103151100
Gutkha (handmade; Karachi)§P5.440.6414.41.111.61.145.44.97.021.5283.9
City Gutkha-SaffronP12.80.676.96.764.52.31741037.33.2366
JM Gutkha Extra StrongP91.413.229029208129133953.510.61560
MawaP5.490.2316.224.471.465.54.23.980.2495.6
MainpuriP17.31.863.536.051.26106325.92219
Naswar, sample 1P19.80.656.9129.43.4363168.561.48478
Naswar, sample 2P85.38.934213309125451410411380
Toombak, sample 1 (black)S11900040017100200149000300011900030057904950302000
Toombak, sample 2 (black)S302000200172001300152000800011900070004550230305000
Toombak, sample 5 (brown)S415008005960049005160005300036800030006770360992000
Toombak sample 7 (black)S11100200166003001470006000115000200054703590295000
Nigerian Snuff (traditional)N50.24.24442028537111929.56.31520
Joseph & H. Wilson 99 SnuffN51.92.041850365541460180125162420
NTSU Ugway SnuffSA29.412.9653211306892943.582.351710
South African Snuff (traditional)SA62971260030161078557015071.86.820500
Singleton's Super Menthol SnuffSA58.012.46968034769159025040.119.22730
Super Taxi SnuffSA175145654924277340060287274670
Peter Stuyvesant Menthol SnusSA65.48.8827332753712904030.413.02490
Peter Stuyvesant Blue SnusSA41.90.852126202489256130.17.51720
Svenskt Tobacco-rette SnusSA1144.0136010134020295011084.20.45850
Lucky Strike Original Red SnusSA73.011.263213517135119026018.68.72080
Lucky Strike Menthol SnusSA86.47.9881762673114404029.48.72700
General Original SnusSW20.80.42481496.44.23453212.50.7723
General Loose SnusSW17.71.12241310542931212.83.0652
General White Wintergreen SnusSW17.11.82142489.89.52672312.81.3601
General White Portion SnusSW17.51.52251096.84.62962213.12.8648
Catch Peppermint SnusSW13.41.42291884.58.2295238.570.77630
NaswayUZ71.47.22973988.38.66284310.52.11100
Vencedor ChimóV57.32.860216902653310210290665160
Fabrica De ChimóV17311668562600100462024013301105880
El Tigirito ChimóV103296596176016026209243137954
El Tabacote ChimóV21.72.422430532463293053.312.41160
Chimó La Chinata CAV19.15.9292493101313188714.95.69390
  • All TSNA measurements were made in triplicate and presented as ng/g wet weight. TSNA values were produced from measurements of three separate samples of tobacco (n=3) unless otherwise noted.

  • * Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines measured in the study include N‘-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), N‘-nitrosoanatabine (NAT), N‘-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), 4(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), and 4-(methylnitrsoamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL).

  • Countries are identified as B=Bangladesh, I=India, P=Pakistan, S=Sudan, N=Nigeria, SA=South Africa, SW=Sweden, UZ=Uzbekistan, and V=Venezuela.

  • Handmade gutkha products bought from street vendors in Secunderabad, India.

  • § Handmade gutkha products bought from street vendors in Karachi, Pakistan.