Table 1

Reports of cigarette and butt ingestion among children, 1983–2009

Study site and authorYearNoAge% Symptomatic% HospitalisedComments
Italy (Malizia, 1983)919834?100100Severe toxicity, including convulsions
USA (Smolinske, 1988)171988515 months–2.5 years26% of 19 butt ingestion cases0Dose response, starting with one cigarette consumed
Philadelphia (McGee, 1995)181988–91700Mean 12 months20.4 (>90% vomiting)<1One with nicotine toxicity, observational therapy only
Wisconsin (Bonadio, 1989)19198820<2 years505One with nicotine toxicity, induced vomiting
Greece (Petridou, 1995)201995152–4 years100100Vomiting and tachycardia, gastric lavage and charcoal
Rhode Island (CDC, 1997)211994–6146Mean 11.6 months330Minor toxic effects
Long Island (Sisselman, 1996)221993–5223<6 years180No gastric lavage indicated, observation only
Japan (Kubo, 2008)232001–6276Median 1 year17<1No lavage, observation for 2 hours