Table 1

Brief summary of market liberalisation process in Japan

1978First US government request for Japan to decrease tariff on US tobacco
1982Tariff on imported tobacco reduced from 90% to 20%
1985Conversion from Japan Public Monopoly Corporation (JPMC) to Japan Tobacco Inc (JT)
Monopoly in sales and distribution ended
Budgetary ratio concept in advertising abolished in favour of restriction in the total volume of radio, televison, and print advertising.
1987Tariff on US tobacco abolished