Table 1

Grades 4-6: comparison of responses, pretest versus posttest, and intervention versus control, to smoking-related questions

QuestionsConstructPosttest survey (14 schools; n = 1181)Pretest survey (14 schools; n = 1730)p1-150
Mean (%)95%CIMean (%)95% CI
Agree with:
I will never smokeIntentions69.362.0–76.662.755.4–70.10.011-151
 No plans to startIntentions89.783.3–96.187.180.7–93.10.31
 Don’t want to smokeIntentions88.180.6–95.686.879.3–94.30.50
 Not as many smokersNorms30.425.4–35.522.717.7–27.8<0.011-152
 Smoking will kill youOutcomes80.275.2–85.269.864.9–74.8<0.01
 Nicotine more addictiveOutcomes54.547.6–61.423.316.5–30.2<0.011-152
 Costs lots of moneyOutcomes85.882.0–89.762.858.9–66.7<0.011-152
 Get in troubleOutcomes88.883.2–94.482.777.1–88.30.01
 People worry about healthOutcomes68.965.4–72.463.760.2–67.20.02
 Makes your teeth yellowOutcomes90.386.3–94.384.280.2–88.20.031-152
 Difficult to quitOutcomes90.485.6–95.287.682.9–92.40.14
 Makes your breath smellOutcomes93.290.4–95.991.088.2–93.40.18
 Hurts lungs and heartOutcomes91.087.4–94.789.685.9–93.20.19
 Makes your lungs blackOutcomes91.087.7–94.490.887.5–94.10.89
 Smoking is dumbAttitudes92.487.6–97.289.384.5–94.10.01
 Billboards get you to tryAttitudes77.270.2–84.270.663.6–77.60.04
 Non-smoking is coolAttitudes90.687.0–94.388.084.3–91.70.141-152
 No reason to startMeanings87.480.0–94.786.479.0–93.80.66
Disagree with:
I have tried a cigaretteBehaviour89.381.8–96.787.980.4–95.30.40
 Started to smokeBehaviour92.987.6–98.293.287.9–98.50.79
 If friend offered, I’d tryIntentions87.781.6–93.984.678.5–90.80.09
 I will try soonIntentions88.682.1–95.087.781.3–94.10.63
 I would like to tryIntentions88.381.8–94.889.182.6–95.60.78
 I think about tryingIntentions84.578.6–90.584.979.0–90.90.84
 I think I will tryIntentions76.868.8–84.976.368.3–84.30.85
 Try in one yearIntentions90.584.4–96.690.684.4–96.70.97
 Many adults smokeNorms31.725.2–38.332.225.6–38.70.84
 Many students smokeNorms75.764.0–87.475.463.9–87.10.92
 Makes you look goodOutcomes92.788.6–96.890.085.6–93.90.081-151
 Makes you laugh moreOutcomes75.670.4–80.871.966.7–77.10.14
 Makes you richOutcomes93.991.9–96.095.593.4–97.50.24
 Makes you look coolOutcomes90.586.5–94.589.285.2–93.20.43
 Doesn’t cause lung cancerOutcomes85.381.3–89.284.280.0–88.10.51
Important reasons to not smoke:
Other ways to have funMeanings88.083.5–92.681.777.2–86.3<0.011-152
 Parents have rulesMeanings79.574.8–84.274.169.4–78.8<0.01
 I might get addictedMeanings71.764.2–79.365.357.8–72.8<0.011-152
 Costs too much moneyMeanings64.557.5–71.646.839.8–53.9<0.011-152
 Breaking school rolesMeanings83.877.6–90.179.172.8–85.3<0.01
 Friends don’t smokeMeanings78.369.7–86.874.365.7–82.90.12
 Could hurt athleticsMeanings87.682.9–92.385.480.7–90.10.35
 Bad for my healthMeanings93.490.2–96.592.989.8–96.10.82
Could say no if offered a cigarette by:
Alien from MarsEfficacy78.174.1–82.272.068.0–76.10.02
 A friendEfficacy86.481.0–91.983.377.8–88.70.11
 Someone in same gradeEfficacy91.587.1–95.989.685.2–94.00.15
 Other older personsEfficacy84.580.5–88.681.877.7–85.80.16
 Older brother or sisterEfficacy89.985.6–94.288.083.7–92.30.23
  • 1-150 At school level; F[1,13].

  • 1-151 Intervention (n = 7 schools) v control (n = 7 schools) analyses, p<0.10. Treatment status is defined by play date: 3 December 1997 and earlier with posttest data as intervention schools and 8 December 1997 and later with pretest data as control (delayed intervention) schools. At school level,F[1,12].

  • 1-152 Intervention (n = 7 schools) v control (n = 7 schools) analyses, p<0.05. Treatment status is defined by play date: 3 December 1997 and earlier with posttest data as intervention schools and 8 December 1997 and later with pretest data as control (delayed intervention) schools. At school level;F[1,12].