Table 2

Grades 1-3: comparison of responses, pretest versus posttest, and intervention versus control, to smoking-related questions

QuestionsConstructPosttest survey (15 schools; n = 1516)Pretest survey (15 schools; n = 2519)p2-150
Mean (%)95% CIMean (%)95% CI
Disagree with:
Ever tried smokingBehaviour95.091.7–98.395.692.3–98.90.64
 Think they will tryIntentions91.387.7–94.992.889.2–96.50.20
 Like to try smokingIntentions96.293.7–98.796.594.0–99.10.79
 A lot of adults smokeNorms43.136.6–49.625.819.3–32.2<0.012-151
 A lot of teens smokeNorms32.227.7–36.825.420.9–30.0<0.012-151
 Makes you look famousOutcomes94.591.2–97.995.392.0–98.70.59
 Makes you look coolMeanings93.090.0–96.090.887.8–93.90.08
 Smoking is funMeanings94.291.5–96.993.791.0–96.40.63
Agree with:
They will never smokeIntentions77.077.8––75.30.02
 People don’t like smokeNorms78.172.0–84.176.470.4–82.40.50
 Makes your clothes stinkOutcomes89.885.9–93.783.279.3–87.1<0.012-151
 Makes it hard to breatheOutcomes93.089.2–96.791.087.2–94.70.11
 Starts forest firesOutcomes94.591.4–97.793.490.3–96.70.33
 Bad for your lungsOutcomes91.987.6–96.292.888.6–97.10.60
 Makes your breath smellOutcomes93.690.2–– 96.60.63
 Companies don’t careAttitudes72.166.8–77.367.362.1–72.50.04
 Many smoke-free placesKnowledge85.981.3–90.484.880.2–89.40.59
  • 2-150 At school level; F[1,14].

  • 2-151 Intervention (n = 8 schools) v control (n = 8 schools) analyses, p<0.05.Treatment status is defined by play date: 3 December 1997 and earlier with posttest data as intervention schools and 4 December 1997 and later with pretest data as control (delayed intervention) schools. At school level;F[1,14].