Table 5

Variables associated with early smoking initiation from proportional hazards model analysis for Chinese American and white adolescents

VariablesChineseWhiteChinese + white
Social network smoking
 Parent smoking2.810.06361.110.01841.110.0150
 Sibling smoking1.410.00011.410.0010
 Best friend smoking (m)1.590.00011.600.0010
 Best friend smoking (f)1.630.00011.640.0010
 Teacher smoking1.320.00041.320.0010
Media exposure
 Tobacco media exposure1.470.00011.470.0010
Attitudes toward smoking
 Hates being around smokers0.410.14930.610.00010.610.0010
 Smokers turn me off0.700.00010.700.0010
 Feel OK around smokers2.720.07341.370.00011.370.0010
Perceived benefit of smoking
 Smoking helps relax1.240.00011.240.0010
 Smoking alleviates boredom1.160.00201.160.0010
Perceived parental influence on smoking
 Parent's approval of my smoking1.200.00031.200.0010
Acculturation status
 Only English at home1.770.0290
 Age in US >6 year0.880.10621.730.02950.950.0320
Model test
  • The result is controlled for age, sex, and year of survey.

  • Due to the relatively smaller sample size, a criteria of p = 0.15 was used for backward selection in the proportional hazards model analysis for Chinese Americans.