Table 3

Rates of reported symptoms of nicotine dependence at the first interview between 205 subjects who had used tobacco one or more times and 476 subjects who had not

Symptoms Users (n=205) Non-users (n=476)
Felt like I really needed a cigarette3-150 19.5%2.5%
Strong urge to smoke when abstinent14.6%0.6%
Strong cravings to smoke3-150 13.2%1.7%
Feeling nervous, restless, or anxious12.7%0.6%
Feeling irritable10.7%0.0%
Difficulty concentrating8.3%0.2%
Felt addicted7.8%0.2%
Hard to refrain from smoking where it is not permitted6.3%1.1%
Feeling sad, blue or depressed5.9%0.8%
  • 3-150 These items were not used as criteria for dependence because of lower specificity.