Table 1

Population-level effects of tobacco control mass media campaigns

Authors and location (broad tobacco control policies and programmes?)Study designSample type and sizeCampaign message type (channels)Intensity*Duration (recall)Effects on knowledge, campaign beliefs or quit intentions?Effects on quit attempts, behaviour or smoking prevalence?Which demographic groups compared? (Differences found?)
Alday et al, 20109; Sao Paulo, Brazil (yes)
  • Cross-sectional, pre/post

  • Smokers and non-smokers; Ns>600

NHE-SHS (TV, print, billboard, radio, online)No informationShort (35%)
  • K: no; CTB: mixed

Durkin et al, 200910; Massachusetts, USA (yes)Cohort, 2 year follow-upSmokers; N=1491Mostly NHE and AI (TV, radio, print, billboard)HighLong (NA)NAQB: yesSES (QB: no)
Gagne et al, 200811; British Columbia, Canada (yes)Cohort, pre/during/postSmokers 20–30 years; N=559Quit benefits and NHE (posters, radio, TV)LowShort (35%; 48% of those exposed to TV)CTB: mixedNANA
Grigg et al, 200812; New Zealand (yes)
  • Cross-sectional, 2 × pre/2 × post; NA

  • Maori smokers/recent quitters; Ns=254 to 420; NA

HTQ Maori targeted (TV, radio, print)No informationModerate (78%)
  • CTB: yes; QI: mixed

Niederdeppe et al, 200813; Wisconsin, USA (no)Cohort, 1 year follow-upSmokers; N=452
  • 1 KTQ (TV); 1 NHE-SHS (TV)

  • KTQ advert: low; NHE-SHS advert: moderate

  • KTQ: moderate (38%); NHE-SHS: long (68%)

  • KTQ advert: QA and QB: no; NHE-SHS advert: QA and QB: no

  • KTQ advert: SES (QA: yes; QB: no); NHE-SHS advert: SES (QA and QB: no)

Perusco et al, 201014; Sydney, Australia (yes)Cross-sectional, pre/postArabic speaking adults; Ns>1000NHE and HTQ (radio, print)LowLong (64%)K: mixed; CTB: mixed; QI: noP: yes
  • Age (P: yes); gender (P: yes); SES (P: yes)

Richardson et al, 2010,15 USA (mixed)Cross-sectional, pre/8 × post
  • Young adults, N=19 701

AI (TV-led)LowLong (42% to 68%)CTB: mixed; QI: trendNANA
Vallone et al, 201016; Michigan, USA (no)Cohort, 6 month follow-upSmokers; N=212HTQ (TV and radio)ModerateShort (77%)CTB and QI: yesQA: trendNA
Vallone et al, 201117 18; USA (mixed)Cohort, 6 month follow-upSmokers 18–49 years; N=4067HTQ (TV-led)LowModerate (41%)CTB and QI: yes
  • QA: yes;

  • QB: trend

SES: (CTB: yes) (QA: yes)
Van den Putte et al, 201119; The Netherlands (partial)Cohort, 2 month and 6 month follow-upsSmokers; N=1079HTQ (TV, radio, online)No informationShort (>90%)QI: noQA: mediated effectNA
Wakefield et al, 200820; Australia (yes)Time series over 11 yearsAdults; average N=2474/monthMostly NHE (TV-led)Varied over timeLong (NA)NAP: yesNA
Wakefield et al, 201121; Australia (yes)Cohort, 1 year follow-ups for 6 yearsSmokers and recent quitters; N=3037Mostly NHE (TV-led)Varied over timeLong (NA)NAQA: yesNA
  • * Intensity: average intensity was low, <1200 TRPs/GRPs per quarter; moderate, 1200 up to 2100 TRPs/GRPs per quarter; high, ≥2100 TRPs/GRPs per quarter.

  • Duration: short, <6 months; moderate, 6 to 17 months; long, ≥18 months.

  • AI, Anti-industry; HTQ, How-to-Quit; KTQ, Keep Trying to Quit; NHE, Negative Health Effects; SHS, Second-Hand Smoke. CTB, Campaign Targeted Beliefs (includes all measures of beliefs and attitudes); K, Knowledge; P, smoking Prevalence; QA, Quit Attempts; QB; Quitting Behaviour; QI: Quitting Intentions; R, Recall. GRPs, Gross Ratings Points; TRPs, Targeted Ratings Points. N, Number of participants; NA, Not Applicable, SES, Socio-Economic Status. Note: Acronyms for all outcome measures are bolded.