Table 1

Descriptive statistics and demographic variables

Individual-level variablesN%MeanSD
Total participants67 584
Age
 <24 years10 62615.7
 25–29 years15 79723.4
 30–34 years24 52936.3
 35+ years16 63224.6
Smoking during pregnancy43856.5
Race/ethnicity
 White non-Hispanic51 78376.6
 Black non-Hispanic49157.3
 Hispanic62069.2
 Other46806.9
Education
 High school or less18 58827.5
 Some college16 51224.4
 College degree or more32 48448.1
Marital status
 No14 37921.3
 Yes53 20578.7
Nativity
 US born52 92878.3
 Foreign born14 65621.7
Parity 1.92.3
Town-level variablesN%MeanSD
Population size
 Mean population 18088.637326.1
 Towns with population <15 000 residents23065.5
 Towns with population 15 000–30 000 residents6819.4
 Towns with population >30 000 residents5315.1
% Of female residents 51.02.0
% Of residents with at least high school education 33.618.5
% Of white residents 96.042.5
Whether majority town passed Question 1
 No12335.0
 Yes22865.0
Smoking ordinance
 Any ordinance21962.4
 Strong ordinance (100% smoke free)3710.5
Time of policy adoption (years)
 Average time of policy adoption 2.63.1
 <1 year15744.7
 1≥ time <2 years5014.3
 2≥ time <3 years318.8
 3+ years11332.2