Table 2

Number of longitudinal studies that identified a specific factor as statistically significantly associated with self-initiated smoking cessation of a duration of at least 6 months among adolescents and young adults, from among all population-based studies that investigated the variable

FactorNo. of studies in which factor was statistically significantly associated with cessation/no. of studies which investigated the factor
Sociodemographic factors
 High socioeconomic status0/2
 Higher/poor levels of parental education2/3
 Higher education2/5
 Good raising children0/1
 Attending fewer different schools1/2
 Living with both biological parents2/4
 Parent communication0/1
 No part-time work0/2
Psychosocial factors
 Good mental health1/3
 No major depressive disorder0/1
 No dysthymia0/1
 No anxiety disorders0/1
 No attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder/disruptive behaviour disorder0/1
 No borderline personality disorder scores0/1
 No antisocial personality disorder scores0/1
 No intentions to smoke cigarettes3/3
 High cigarette resistance self-efficacy3/4
 Negative beliefs about smoking3/5
 Antismoking beliefs1/1
 Positive consequences of smoking0/3
 Less rebellious1/4
 No thrill seeking0/1
 Less delinquent1/3
 Less deviant0/1
 Not being victimised (sexual and non-sexual)0/1
Behavioural factors
 No problem behaviours0/1
 No alcohol use1/6
 No drug use1/3
 No drug selling1/1
 No criminal behaviour0/1
 Good physical health2/3
 Academic intentions0/1
Social influences
 No friends smoking5/7
 No perceived prevalence of smoking0/5
 No parents smoking1/3
 Late parents' quitting0/1
 Early parents' quitting1/1
 No siblings smoking1/3
 No household smoking (parents or siblings)0/1
 Friend disapproval of cigarette use0/3
 Parent disapproval of cigarette use2/3
 Parents/friends' disapproval of cigarettes0/1
 Community disapproval of cigarette use0/1
 Friend support1/3
 Parental support1/5
 No cigarette offers2/3
 School attachment0/1
 Community attachment0/1
 Living without children1/1
 Moving in with spouse or partner0/1
 Becoming parents0/1
 Becoming parents x gender0/1
 No family history of affective disorder0/1
 No family history of anxiety0/1
 No family history of drug and alcohol use0/1
 No familial history of externalising0/1
Smoking related variables
 Older age at first cigarette use3/5
 Older age at first daily smoking0/1
 Low frequency of smoking2/3
 No nicotine withdrawal0/1
 No nicotine dependence1/1
 No cigarette availability0/1