Table 2

Results from uncontrolled trials

Studies Objectives Outcomes
Leominster: DiFranza et al 38Education and enforcementIllegal salesSales were refused in 81%, 84%, and 35% of tests at each follow up. No baseline assessment of sales rates and different ages used for test purchasing.
Smoking behaviourSmoking prevalence fell significantly in 12–13 years and 16–17 years age groups.
Woodridge: Jasonet al 32 33 50 Legislation and enforcementIllegal salesSales were reduced to a minimal level (average < 4% in 5 checks over 12 months) for the first 2 years after passage of legislation, as measured by quarterly compliance checks. In later periods youths were older and sales rates also rose. When a 17 year old was used 25% sold illegally.
Smoking behaviourBetween 1989 and 1991 the proportion of 7th–8th graders describing themselves as regular smokers fell from 16% to 5% and experimenters from 46% to 23%. In 1996 there were significantly fewer smokers among a sample of Woodridge students compared to students at the same school from a non-enforcement community (42.2%v 54.7%, p < 0.05). The difference in regular smoking was 8.3% v 13.4% (NS).
Perceived accessIn 1991 69% of students felt the law would either prevent their procurement of cigarettes or make them harder to obtain. In 1996 more Woodridge smokers felt it was difficult or moderately difficult to get cigs than smokers from non-enforcement community (20% v 14.3%, NS).
Everett: Hinds39 LegislationSmoking behaviourTobacco use fell from 25.3% to 19.7% (not significant), but reduction among girls was significant (26.4% to 11.5%).
Perceived accessStores as a source of tobacco products did not change significantly, but some reduction was noted post intervention. Friends increased as a source of tobacco products post ordinance
(p = 0.04).
Alberta (Compliance for Kids): Abernathy47 Legislation and educationIllegal salesThere was some reduction in willingness to sell in all three communities. The change was significant only in controls: pre 57.1%, post 14.3% (p < 0.02).
Bristol: Naidoo and Platts54
Education and publicity
Illegal sales91% (n = 100) sold at baseline, 44% (n = 50) sold at 1 year. New guidelines and publicity materials were issued nationally between baseline and follow up.
Cook County: McDermottet al 49 Education and warningIllegal sales120/129 non-compliant stores revisited. Purchase success rate fell to 51%.
Manly: Juncket al 34 Community + feedbackIllegal salesPurchase success fell. At baseline 52% of outlets sold (85% if up to 3 attempts), fell to 26% (55% if 3 attempts) at 3 months, and 14% at 10 months.
Ontario: Dovellet al 29 EducationIllegal salesIn KFL&A willingness to sell fell from 46% at baseline to 43% after general education and to 6% after receiving kit. Also effect in H&PE, 47% to 2%, 1 week after intervention.
Oregon (Project SixTeen): Biglan et al30 55 Community + feedbackIllegal salesThere was a significant reduction in the mean level of sales, from 57% to 22%, based on multiple assessments in 8 communities.
Perth: Mawkes et al 35 Community + enforcementIllegal salesAt baseline 89% of outlets prepared to sell. At follow up overall rate fell to 28%, but substantial variation by area.
Solana County: Feighery et al 31 Retailer education + enforcementIllegal sales73% sold at pretest, 68% at post-test 1 (after education), 31% at post-test 2 (after enforcement). Change in over counter sales significant. Vending machine sales remained high.
St Paul: Forster et al 37 Vending machine locksIllegal sales1 year after the law 47% with locks, 30% were still not in compliance. Overall purchase success rate was 86% before law, 30% at 3 months and 48% at 1 year.
Stirling: Campbell56 WarningIllegal salesAt baseline 37% sold. Of 13 revisited, only 1 sold at follow up. Among outlets visited for first time at follow up survey, sales rate 35%.
Wisconsin: Schensky et al 48 Education and feedbackIllegal sales40% permitted purchase at baseline and 18% at follow up. Of those who permitted purchase at baseline 25% permitted at follow up.
  • KFL&A, Kingston Frontenac Lennox and Addington Health Unit; H&PE, Hastings and Prince Edward Counties Health Unit.