Table 1

Overview of elements of five comprehensive statewide tobacco control programmes in the USA to 1998-99.

California Massachusetts Arizona Oregon Florida
Programme funding source and cigarette price increases1989: tax increase by 25 cents to 35 cents/pack, earmarked 20% of revenue for tobacco control34 1993: tax increase by 25 cents to 51 cents per pack53 1996: tax increase by 25 cents to 76 cents/pack, and increases for loose tobacco and cigars53 1994: tax increase by 40 cents to 58 cents/pack and increased tax on other tobacco products, earmarked 23% of revenue for tobacco control63 1996: tax increase by 30 cents to 68 cents per pack, earmarked 10% of increase for tobacco control69 1997: Florida tobacco settlement funding, but no tax increase
November 1998: national 45 cent price increase due to multi-state settlement agreement, followed by widespread price discounting of popular brands
Per capita programme spending (in US 1999 dollars)1989-93: $3.27 1993-96: $1.78 34 1994-97: average $7.0953 1996-98: average $3.8963 1997-99: $2.5969 1997: $2.61 1998: $4.7382
Tobacco industry interventionLobbying to divert funding from tobacco control programme34 Ratio of industry: programme spending was 5:1 in 1989-93 and 10:1 in 1993-9634 Lobbying to divert funding from programme54 Thought responsible for 1 year delay in programme spending, so baseline measures not gathered, and for limiting early programme activity to teens and pregnant women63 Unsuccessful attempts to divert funding and limit the scope and target groups of the programme70 Probable behind scenes lobbying to reduce programme funding and fire programme director82
Programme components1989-96 (average)34:
Mass media 17%
Local lead agency grants 26%
Competitive grants 22% School based programmes 31%
Administration and evaluation 5%
Mass media 33%
Local lead agency grants for cessation, education, advocacy 43%
School programmes 15% Statewide services e.g. training and quitline 5% Research/evaluation 4%
Mass media and sponsorships 54%
Local lead agency grants for school education, cessation, protection from ETS 25%
Info clearinghouse and quitline 5%
Statewide projects, admin and evaluation 16%
Public awareness and education 27%
Local lead agency grants 38%
Statewide/regional projects for quitline, tribal programmes 16% School programmes 12% Coordination/evaluation 7%
Mass media 37% Education/training 23% Youth and community programmes 21% Enforcement 12% Evaluation 6%
Programme focusAdults
Protection of non-smokers from ETS
Protection of non-smokers from ETS
Pregnant women
Adults from mid-1998
Protection of non-smokers from ETS
  • ETS, environmental tobacco smoke.